Francis Julius Bellamy (May 18, 1855 - August 28, 1931) was a minister, a graduate of the University of Rochester, and he composed the original Pledge of Allegiance.

Francis also influenced his cousin [[Edward Bellamy]], the author of the socialist utopian novel Looking Backward (1888). According to Erich Fromm, Bellamy's book Looking Backward 2000-1887 is " one of the few books ever published that created almost immediately on its appearance a political mass movement." (Fromm, p vi). It was the third largest bestseller of its time. It influenced a large number of intellectuals, and appears by title in many of the major Marxist writings of the day. "Nationalism Clubs" sprang up all over the United States and worldwide for discussing and propagating the book's ideas. Francis was a charter member of the first Nationalist Club of Boston, and promoted Edward Bellamy's Nationalist creed in written articles. The book was tranlsated into every major language including German, Russian and Chinese. It influenced socialists worldwide, including those countries in the socialist Wholecaust (of which the Holocaust was a part): 65 million dead under the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; 49 million under the Peoples' Republic of China; 21 million under the National Socialist German Workers' Party. 

Both cousins espoused what they called "Christian Socialism." Bellamy lost his position in the ministry because he used it as a pulpit for his "Christian Socialism" theology.  After leaving there, Francis continued to push his plans, but switched to using the government and government schools as a mandatory method to promote his ideas.

It was at that time that he took a job at the Youth's Companion Magazine where he eventually penned his pledge. The people who hired Bellamy at the Youth’s Companion and who gave him his pledge assignment were familiar with, and embraced, Bellamy's "Christian socialism."  Francis had written and worked for his theology openly before then.  In addition, Francis and Edward had been openly involved in the national socialism movement and the "Nationalist" magazine, published by the "Nationalist Educational Association."

The Pledge was originally part of a larger Colombus Day ceremony that is replete with religious references. The ceremony also expressed the Bellamy desire for the government to take over the education of all children and to turn all schools into government schools.  The Youth's Companion Magazine aided the Bellamy ideas by promoting a national flag over every government school and that is why there are many laws today that require the federal flag to be displayed in every classroom, along with a daily chanting of the pledge.  

The Pledge was published in the September 8, 1892, issue of the magazine, and immediately put to use in the campaign. Bellamy went to speak to a national meeting of school superintendents in government schools to promote the celebration; the convention liked the idea and selected a committee of leading educators to implement the program, including the immediate past president of the National Education Association. Bellamy was selected as the chair and he received the official blessing of government educators.

As part of the ceremony, flag raising was planned and the idea of a pledge developed along with the desire for a gesture as part of the pledge. The Bellamys adored the military and they wanted the entire economy to be nationalized and emulate the military. They also called their dogma “military socialism” and they wanted government to take over all schools in order to create the “industrial army” from schoolchildren and spread their vision. The Pledge of Allegiance fit with that vision and Francis was pleased to adopt his co-worker’s suggestion that the pledge should have as its initial gesture the military salute.

The initial military salute was held for the phrase “I pledge allegiance” and then the hand was extended outward toward the flag.  In actual use, the second part of the gesture was performed with a straight arm and palm down by children extending the military salute while perfunctorily performing the forced ritual chanting.  Photographs confirm it and that is why such photographs are never shown in schools, in the media, in court decisions, and are difficult to find.  Due to the way that both gestures were used sequentially in the pledge, the military salute led to the salute of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSGWP), as discovered by the historian Dr. Rex Curry.  The NSGWP salute is an extended military salute via the pledge. Shocking historic photographs of the early Pledge salute are suppressed and rare but can be found on the web.

The pledge became widespread in government schools, and many people were persecuted for refusing to chant the Bellamy pledge and for refusing to give Bellamy's straight-arm salute to the national flag.  That was the national flag of the USA and of Germany. It was happening in the USA (to the stars and stripes) and in Germany (to the swastika flag) at the same time.  Some of the people who refused to chant and salute were religious people who considered the act sacrilegious. They were good reasons to consider the pledge and the salute to be the sacrilegious worship of government. Most people do not know that a cross was worshiped as the notorious symbol of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. The group called their symbol the Hakenkreuz, not the swastika. Hakenkreuz means "hooked cross." Although the swastika was an ancient symbol, Professor Rex Curry discovered that it was also used sometimes by German National Socialists to represent "S" letters for their "socialism."  With a 45 degree turn of his Hakenkreuz, the leader of German National Socialists combined the cross with collectivism, merged church and state, meshed religion and socialism, and mandated the worship of government.

The Bellamys were bigots, racists, and xenophobes and they obsessed about immigrants coming into the USA.  They wanted to government to take over education and use schools to change everyone and try to make everyone "equal." When the government granted their wish and began taking over schools, the government schools imposed segregation by law and taught racism as official government policy. It served as a horrid example for three decades leading to the beginning of the National Socialist German Workers' Party and the practice in the USA even outlasted the Party by more than 15 years.

Francis Bellamy is buried in Rome, New York.

The American Educational Review: A Monthly Review of the Progress of Higher Education September 1911 to October 1912, on Page 368 makes a reference to the following article: Unfamiliar Philadelphia, by Francis Bellamy (Delineator) From Magazines in the month of April. Something about the most unfamiliar big city in America.

Tudor Tracts, 1532-1588 By Albert Frederick Pollard, Thomas Seccombe, Library of Congress Division of Bibliography Page 18 references the following:
1898. Taking away the negro's ballot. Francis Bellamy. Illustrated American, vol. 23 (Jan. 15, 1898): 72.

The American Monthly Review of Reviews edited by Albert Shaw Page 623
Francis Bellamy, starting from the modern creed, “Brains may be more important than money, but nowadays the best way to convince the world that you have brains is to make money," proceeds to outline the careers of "Sucessful Men Who Are Not Rich." "If people in gerneral have apparently scuttled over to the new bigotry, that the only success worth winning is the getting of money, there are still plenty of men, of vigourous mind, who have a saner view of life and happiness."

The School Bulletin and New York State Educational Journal  March 1904, XLV, Page 133 or 178 references the following: 7. Songs of the Lyceum League. Leatherette, small 4to, pp. 48, 20 cts. This is a collection prepared by Mr. Francis Bellamy for the Lyceum League of America. Besides patriotic songs, many of them original and copyrighted, it has a choice selection of others for the school and family.

National Educational Association [Boston] p 256 It is impossible to give statistical results of this school celebration. The press reports, however, indicated it to be general throughout all the States and Territories of the Republic. The South was not behind the North in doing honor to the schools and to the flag, the Confederate veterans assisting the schools to raise and salute the national flag and marching side by side in the review with the Federal veterans....

Francis Bellamy search
Socialism and the American Spirit
Nicholas Paine Gilman

Congress did not tamper with the language of the Pledge until 1954.

Three large civic groups were involved in altering the pledge (two of them were military related): National Education Association, the American Legion, and Daughters of the American Revolution,

The Review of Reviews - Page 178
by W. T. (William Thomas) Stead - 1936
The Rev. Francis Bellamy, replying to the editor's recent denunciation of Socialism, makes some remarks in praise of the tolerance of majorities which tend to confirm the belief in the direct government of the people by the people:-

Rev. Francis Bellamy also wrote "The Tyranny Of All The People"
The American Educational Review: A Monthly Review of the Progress of Higher Education Page 368
Unfamiliar Philadelphia, by Francis Bellamy (Delineator). Something about the most unfamiliar big city in America.

by montagu chambers and francis towers streeten
There is no question of priority here between the appellants and Francis Bellamy,
the plain- tiffin the first suit. The appellants claim-ing under the ...

Francis Bellamy Francis Bellamy
Francis Bellamy Biography & News The Pledge of Allegiance
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