of Allegiance was the origin
of Adolf Hitler's "Nazi" salute under the National Socialist German Workers
Party (Nazis). http://rexcurry.net/pledge7.html
Francis Bellamy & Edward Bellamy touted National Socialism in the USA decades before their dogma was exported to Germany. http://rexcurry.net/police-state.html
The swastika, although
an ancient symbol, was also used to represent "S" letters joined for "socialism"
under the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis), similar to the
alphabetical symbolism for the SS Division, the SA, the NSV, and the VW
logo (the letters "V" and "W" joined for "Volkswagen"). http://rexcurry.net/bookchapter4a1a2a1.html
| Does every pledge of allegiance establish a religion
-- the worship of government?
In the 1930s, the National Socialist German Workers' Party required everyone to pledge allegiance, similar to many U.S. laws that have tried to require school children to recite the pledge. Jehovah's Witnesses believed that people who enjoy reciting government pledges are people who worship government. Jehovah's Witnesses were officially banned for refusing to join the raised palm salute to flags in schools and at public events under the National Socialist German Workers' Party. Many of the German Witnesses were imprisoned in concentration camps.
In the 1940's, before the phrase "under God" was added to the U.S. pledge of allegiance, Jehovah's Witnesses refused to recite the pledge of allegiance in school on the grounds that it constituted worship of government. They hoped for a different response than they had met from the National Socialist German Workers' Party. In 1940, in Minersville School Board v. Gobitas, the Supreme Court ruled that a school district could expel those children for refusing to salute the flag. Three years later (1943), in West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette. the Supreme Court reversed itself and decided that school children may not be forced to stand and salute the flag.
The original salute to the U.S. flag was similar to the salute of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. "Nazi" was an abbreviation of "National Socialist Worker's Party of Germany." They advocated nationalizing the economy. After the National Socialist German Workers' Party demonstrated full blown socialism, the U.S. flag salute changed to the modern hand over the heart.
The U.S. pledge of allegiance was written in 1892 by a socialist, to promote socialism in the most socialistic institution -- government schools. The author, Francis Bellamy, belonged to a religious socialist movement known as "Christian Socialism," and belonged to a group known for "Nationalism," whose members wanted the federal government to nationalize most of the American economy. He saw government schools as a means to that end.
Libertarians like to say they oppose "the cult of the omnipotent state." There are many parallels between the legal arguments made by Jehovah's Witnesses and the libertarian catchphrase.
As Libertarians say: The separation of school and state is as important as the separation of church and state. One admirable result of the Gobitas case and every Supreme Court case regarding government schools is that many people remove their children from government schools. And that is the solution to the pledge debate and all other issues: reduce government and remove government from education.
Rex Curry is an attorney from Tampa, Florida, and can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
to learn more about the Pledge of Allegiance visit
7/1/2002 7:02:05 AM.
also in the 2002 Hawaii Reporter, Inc.