MUSSOLINI WAS A SOCIALIST Swastika Benito Mussolini & socialist symbolism

Benito Mussolini, fascists, Edward Bellamy, Francis Bellamy, Swastika, Pledge of Allegiance


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Mussolini was a socialist. Benito Mussolini was the leader of the Socialist Party of Italy.  Like many modern media Mussolinis, he was a socialist and a journalist.

Mussolini borrowed from American Socialists Edward Bellamy and Francis Bellamy (author of the Pledge of Allegiance in 1892) as shown in this photograph of the Pledge of Allegiance.

Mussolini borrowed much of his  symbolism from American Socialists.

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In 1908 worked in the city of Trento, which was ethnically Italian but then under the control of Austria-Hungary. He did office work for the local socialist party and edited its newspaper L'Avvenire del Lavoratore ("The Future of the Worker"). He made contact with the socialist journalist Cesare Battisti, and agreed to write for and edit Battisti's newspaper Il Popolo ("The People") in addition to the work Mussolini did for the Socialist Party.

Between 1912 and 1914, Mussolini was the editor of the Socialist Party newspaper, "L'Avanti" (Avanti means "in front", "advance" or "forward" or even "come in"). In 1914 he started his own socialist newspaper "Il Popolo d'Italia" ("The people of Italy"). 

He was considered by socialists to be a great writer about socialism. He was a staunch proponent of revolutionary rather than reformist socialism, and actually received Lenin's endorsement and support for expelling reformists from the Socialist Party.  He was in fact first dubbed "Il Duce" (the Leader) when he was a member of Italy's (Marxist) Socialist Party. 

When Mussolini differed with some Socialists it was over participation in World War I, not over abstract theory, or economic doctrine.   Many socialists were neutralists in the First World War, whereas Mussolini correctly foresaw that the Austro/German forces would not win the war and therefore wanted Italy to join the Allied side and thus get a slice of Austrian territory at the end of the war. 

During World War I, Mussolini publicized what he admitted was his new brand of socialism.

The f-word and the n-word are used to cover-up the history of the deadly dogma of socialism.  The USA's Pledge of Allegiance to the flag was written by a self-proclaimed "National Socialist" and "Christian Socialist" in the USA and the early pledge used a straight-arm salute for the U.S. flag, and it was the origin of the salute used by the National Socialist German Workers' Party for its swastika flag, as discovered by the etymologist Dr. Rex Curry (author of "Pledge of Allegiance Secrets").

The swastika itself, although an ancient symbol, was sometimes used to represent overlapping S-letters for "socialism" under the National Socialist German Workers' Party.

As German socialism's notorious flag symbol, the swastika was deliberately turned 45 degrees to the horizontal and always oriented in the S-direction. Similar alphabetic symbolism is still visible as Volkswagen logos.

American socialists bear some blame for altering the notorious symbol used as overlapping S-letters for "socialism" under the National Socialist German Workers Party. The swastika symbol was used by the Theosophical Society (from 1875) during the time when the Bellamys, Freemasons and the Theosophical Society worked together to promote socialism.

On October 28, 1922, Mussolini led his "March on Rome", which brought him to power for 23 years.

In late 1937, Mussolini continued to work with other socialists, including a notorious member of the Wholecost (of which the Holocaust was a part): the National Socialist German Workers Party (20 million killed); the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (60 million killed); the Peoples' Republic of China (50 million killed). Mussolini visited Germany in 1937 and pledged himself to support the National Socialist German Workers’ Party.  In 1939, the National Socialist German Workers' Party joined as allies with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to invade Poland in a pact to divide up Europe, spreading WWII.

In 1938, Mussolini introduced his ‘reform of customs.’”  Hand-shaking was suddenly banned as unhygienic: a salute was to be used instead - the right forearm raised vertically.  He imposed a new march on the Italian Army which was simply the goose-step of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party.  According to the book “A Concise History of Italy” by Christopher Duggan, these reforms were introduced mainly to underline ideological kinship with the National Socialist German Workers’ Party and to impress it’s leader. 

The so-called “Roman salute” (saluto romano) is as much of a fiction as is the so-called “Roman step” (passo romano) as is the idea that the National Socialist German Workers’ Party emulated Mussolini and not vice versa.  

All of the above contributed to the Roman salute myth (the myth that the stiff-arm salute was an ancient Roman salute), debunked by the Dr. Curry.

The most notorious instance of Italy imitating the National Socialist German Workers’ Party was in the racist laws imposed in November 1938. 

Before and during it all (from 1892), children in the U.S. attended government-schools where racism and segregation were mandated by law, and where they performed a straight-armed salute to the U.S. flag, and were forced to robotically chant a pledge written by a national socialist who wanted to produce an “industrial army” for totalitarian socialism as popularized worldwide in a best-selling novel.  


Rome, Italy, February 23, 1941 

Follow me now please: 

First, in war potentiality Germany not only did not decrease after seventeen months of war, but increased in gigantic proportions. From the standpoint of human losses, they have been at a minimum if compared with the masses in action. Losses of materials were more than compensated for by immense booty and were absolutely insignificant.

The unity of political and military command in the hands of the Fuehrer-he who once was simple soldier and volunteer Adolf Hitler-gives to the operations an enthusiastic, irresistible, revolutionary and therefore National Socialist rhythm that begins with the highest generals and goes to the humblest soldiers. Britain will realize that once again.

The Mystery of Fascism  by David Ramsay Steele

Soon after he arrived in Switzerland in 1902, 18 years old and looking for work, Benito Mussolini was starving and penniless. All he had in his pockets was a cheap nickel medallion of Karl Marx.

Following a spell of vagrancy, Mussolini found a job as a bricklayer and union organizer in the city of Lausanne. Quickly achieving fame as an agitator among the Italian migratory laborers, he was referred to by a local Italian-language newspaper as "the great duce [leader] of the Italian socialists." He read voraciously, learned several foreign languages, (2) and sat in on Pareto's lectures at the university.

The great duce's fame was so far purely parochial. Upon his return to Italy, young Benito was an undistinguished member of the Socialist Party. He began to edit his own little paper, La Lotta di Classe (The Class Struggle), ferociously anti-capitalist, anti-militarist, and anti-Catholic. He took seriously Marx's dictum that the working class has no country, and vigorously opposed the Italian military intervention in Libya. Jailed several times for involvement in strikes and anti-war protests, he became something of a leftist hero. Before turning 30, Mussolini was elected to the National Executive Committee of the Socialist Party, and made editor of its daily paper, Avanti! The paper's circulation and Mussolini's personal popularity grew by leaps and bounds.

Mussolini's election to the Executive was part of the capture of control of the Socialist Party by the hard-line Marxist left, with the expulsion from the Party of those deputies (members of parliament) considered too conciliatory to the bourgeoisie. The shift in Socialist Party control was greeted with delight by Lenin and other revolutionaries throughout the world.

From 1912 to 1914, Mussolini was the Che Guevara of his day, a living saint of leftism. Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an erudite Marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to the core, he was the peerless duce of the Italian Left. He looked like the head of any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary.

In 1913, while still editor of Avanti!, he began to publish and edit his own journal, Utopia, a forum for controversial discussion among leftwing socialists. Like many such socialist journals founded in hope, it aimed to create a highly-educated cadre of revolutionaries, purged of dogmatic illusions, ready to seize the moment. Two of those who collaborated with Mussolini on Utopia would go on to help found the Italian Communist Party and one to help found the German Communist Party. (3) Others, with Mussolini, would found the Fascist movement.

The First World War began in August 1914 without Italian involvement. Should Italy join Britain and France against Germany and Austria, or stay out of the war? (4) All the top leaders and intellectuals of the Socialist Party, Mussolini among them, were opposed to Italian participation.

In October and November 1914, Mussolini switched to a pro-war position. He resigned as editor of Avanti!, joined with pro-war leftists outside the Socialist Party, and launched a new pro-war socialist paper, Il Popolo d'Italia (People of Italy). (5) To the Socialist Party leadership, this was a great betrayal, a sell-out to the whoremasters of the bourgeoisie, and Mussolini was expelled from the Party. It was as scandalous as though, 50 years later, Guevara had announced that he was off to Vietnam, to help defend the South against North Vietnamese aggression.

Italy entered the war in May 1915, and Mussolini enlisted. In 1917 he was seriously wounded and hospitalized, emerging from the war the most popular of the pro-war socialists, a leader without a movement. Post-war Italy was hag-ridden by civil strife and political violence. Sensing a revolutionary situation in the wake of Russia's Bolshevik coup, the left organized strikes, factory occupations, riots, and political killings. Socialists often beat up and sometimes killed soldiers returning home, just because they had fought in the war. Assaulting political opponents and wrecking their property became an everyday occurrence.

Mussolini and a group of adherents launched the Fascist movement (6) in 1919. The initiators were mostly men of the left: revolutionary syndicalists and former Marxists. (7) They took with them some non-socialist nationalists and futurists, and recruited heavily among soldiers returning from the war, so that the bulk of rank-and-file Fascists had no leftwing background. The Fascists adopted the black shirts (8) of the anarchists and Giovinezza (Youth), the song of the front-line soldiers.

Apart from its ardent nationalism and pro-war foreign policy, the Fascist program was a mixture of radical left, moderate left, democratic, and liberal measures, and for more than a year the new movement was not notably more violent than other socialist groupings. (9) However, Fascists came into conflict with Socialist Party members and in 1920 formed a militia, the squadre (squads). Including many patriotic veterans, the squads were more efficient at arson and terror tactics than the violently disposed but bumbling Marxists, and often had the tacit support of the police and army. By 1921 Fascists had the upper hand in physical combat with their rivals of the left.

The democratic and liberal elements in Fascist preaching rapidly diminished and in 1922 Mussolini declared that "The world is turning to the right." The Socialists, who controlled the unions, called a general strike. Marching into some of the major cities, blackshirt squads quickly and forcibly suppressed the strike, and most Italians heaved a sigh of relief. This gave the blackshirts the idea of marching on Rome to seize power. As they publicly gathered for the great march, the government decided to avert possible civil war by bringing Mussolini into office; the King "begged" Mussolini to become Prime Minister, with emergency powers. Instead of a desperate uprising, the March on Rome was the triumphant celebration of a legal transfer of authority.

The youngest prime minister in Italian history, Mussolini was an adroit and indefatigable fixer, a formidable wheeler and dealer in a constitutional monarchy which did not become an outright and permanent dictatorship until December 1925, and even then retained elements of unstable pluralism requiring fancy footwork. He became world-renowned as a political miracle worker. Mussolini made the trains run on time, closed down the Mafia, drained the Pontine marshes, and solved the tricky Roman Question, finally settling the political status of the Pope.

Cole Porter -- sang Mussolini's praises

Mussolini was showered with accolades from sundry quarters. Winston Churchill called him "the greatest living legislator." Cole Porter gave him a terrific plug in a hit song. Sigmund Freud sent him an autographed copy of one of his books, inscribed to "the Hero of Culture." The more taciturn Stalin supplied Mussolini with the plans of the May Day parades in Red Square, to help him polish up his pageants.

The rest of il Duce's career is now more familiar. He conquered Ethiopia, made a Pact of Steel with Germany, introduced anti-Jewish measures in 1938, (11) came into the war as Hitler's very junior partner, tried to strike out on his own by invading the Balkans, had to be bailed out by Hitler, was driven back by the Allies, and then deposed by the Great Council, rescued from imprisonment by SS troops in one of the most brilliant commando operations of the war, installed as head of a new "Italian Social Republic," and killed by Communist partisans in April 1945.

Given what most people today think they know about Mussolini, this bare recital of facts above is a mystery story.

© Libertarian Alliance  2003

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BENITO MUSSOLINI The Pledge of Allegiance & socialism, segregation and racism

The government in the United States was using the fasces symbol before it was adopted by Mussolini when he was a well-known socialist writer and leader. In 1915, fasces appeared on an Indian head gold coin in the talons of an eagle. In 1916, fasces appeared on the Mercury dime. It was propaganda to con Americans into another one of the many stupid wars that the USA's government either started or joined: WWI (the war to make the world safe for democracy, har har). That propaganda supplemented flag waving, the Pledge of Allegiance (with its stiff-armed salute) and similar silliness.

During WWI, Mussolini was a well-known socialist leader and writer. Mussolini also wanted Italians to join the USA and the allies in World war I against the Austro/German forces.

Mussolini mimicked military socialism in the USA as touted by Francis Bellamy (author of the "Pledge of Allegiance") and Edward Bellamy (author of "Looking Backward").

Edward Bellamy's book was an international bestseller translated into every major language, including Italian.

The fasces symbol appears in Congress

It is used in other government seals and symbols

The fasces is on the seal of the Rome Academy where Francis Bellamy (1855-1932) attended school.

BENITO MUSSOLINI FASCISM Swastika, Francis Bellamy, Pledge of Allegiance, Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward, Holocaust, Inquisition
Swastika Swastika

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The court case of Frank Herbert Wonschik v. U.S., argued that the jury selection process was impermissibly tainted by the trial judge's request that all potential jurors stand and recite the pledge of allegiance prior to jury selection. Furthermore, that bias also transgressed the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

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