Nazi salute, Fascist salute, Hitler salute tracked to New York !!!
(Rome NY; not Rome, Italy) & Francis Bellamy

Nazi salute, Fascist salute, Hitler salute. The original Pledge of Allegiance


Read the new book "Swastikas, Holocausts, Nazis & the USA"

For a long list of articles exposing the pledge see
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The Nazi salute has been traced to New York.  The straight-arm salute began in the city of Rome in the state of New York, and not in Rome, Italy, according to a new book "Swastikas, Holocausts, Nazis & the USA" 

In the past, the Nazi salute was called the "Roman" salute and attributed without support to ancient Rome.  

New evidence shows that the Roman salute and its name originated from Rome, NY via  Francis Bellamy, author of the USA's pledge of allegiance, who grew up in Rome and is buried there. The pledge originally used the straight-arm salute.

More eye-popping photos are at   

And a jaw-dropping timeline is at

See video documentary at

Hear audio podcast at 

New York's Nazi salute began in 1892 when the pledge was written.  The Roman salute myth arose from the fact that Francis Bellamy (the author of the pledge of allegiance and of its original straight-arm salute) was from the city of Rome (in the state of New York, not in Italy) and people and things from the city in New York state were referred to as "Roman" and still are today. 

The Utica Observer referenced Francis Bellamy with this headline on August 28, 1936 "Roman Lived to See U. S. Adopt Famed Flag Salute."  At that time, the stiff-arm salute continued to be used as the famed flag salute.

Francis Bellamy and his cousin and cohort Edward Bellamy were self-proclaimed socialists in the nationalism movement, they espoused "military socialism" and they wrote for the "Nationalist" magazine and its "Nationalist Educational Association" (NEA) named with deliberate similarity to the National Education Association (NEA).  Only one place on the internet exposes the "Nationalist" magazine and it is below or at  

Francis Bellamy was also a leader in the National Education Association (NEA) and used it to promote his dogma. The Bellamys advocated nationalization of the entire economy, and that government take over schools and eliminate all of the better alternatives. They wanted government schools to produce an "industrial army" (a Bellamy term) explicitly modeled upon the military.  That is why they supported a national flag over every school and a daily pledge of allegiance to the national government.  

The government's schools institutionalized segregation and taught racism as official policy. During that time children in government-schools were required by law to salute the flag with the straight-armed salute in military formation daily on the ring of a government bell, like Pavlov’s lapdogs of the state. 

The bizarre practice in the USA served as an example for three decades before it was adopted by the National Socialist German Workers’ Party.  When Jesse Owens competed in the 1936 Olympics in Nazi Germany, his neighbors attended segregated government schools where they saluted the flag with the Nazi salute.  As under Nazism, Jehovah's Witnesses and others in the USA were persecuted for refusing to perform the straight-arm salute and robotically chant the pledge.  They were also expelled from government schools and had to use the many better alternatives.  The U.S. practice of official racism and segregation in government schools even outlasted the horrid Nazi Party, into the 1960's and beyond.  Thereafter, the Bellamy legacy caused more police-state racism of forced busing that destroyed communities and neighborhoods and deepened hostilities.

Military socialism spread in the USA. In 1916, fasces appeared on the Mercury dime. It was propaganda to con Americans into another one of the many stupid wars that the USA's government either started or joined: WWI (the war to make the world safe for democracy, har har).  Money was socialized in the U.S. (the Federal Reserve Act was imposed in 1913). In 1915, fasces appeared on an Indian head gold coin in the talons of an eagle. The fasces also appeared on some 25 cent coins.

Francis Bellamy (1855-1932) was born in Mount Morris, New York, where his father, David Bellamy, was working as a pastor for the Baptist Church. In 1859, David accepted a call at the First Baptist Church in Rome, New York and remained there raising Francis. David Bellamy died there in 1864.

Francis began schooling and graduated from Rome Free Academy (RFA -the government high school that is still there) in 1872, later becoming RFA's first president of its Alumni Association. The RFA started as a non-government school in 1847 when a meeting of citizens established Rome Academy. The Board of Trustees accepted a land site gift from the estate of Dominick Lynch. In 1848 the RFA opened with a principal and six teachers. It was a non-government school for 20 years until, in 1869, a government school district with a Board of Education was created and Rome Academy became "Rome Free Academy." In 1873, after RFA, Bellamy entered the University of Rochester where he studied for the Baptist ministry.

In 1819 the Rome Township name was selected in an election, rejecting the name "Lynchville."  Lynchville was renamed Rome for the “heroic defense of the Republic made there”—ie, at Oriskany. Many cities in New York State have names from classical history (Albany, Ithaca, Syracuse, Troy, Utica) and that is why New York is the Roman Empire State.  The Rome Acadamy school began in 1847, and the city was not incorporated until 23 years later, in 1870.  

Francis Bellamy admired ancient Rome and its militarism, and he grew up in the city of Rome in New York, where he and his neighbors were known as “Romans,” and he was educated in the Rome Academy there.

The National Socialist German Workers' Party also admired ancient Rome and its militarism, and that inspired the term "Third Reich."  The First Reich (or 'Empire') was the Holy Roman Empire period of the German Nation begun in A.D. 962 when Otto the Great was crowned in Rome. That Empire endured - more or less intact - for approximately 1000 years.  The Second Reich was founded by Otto von Bismarck in 1871. When the Hohenzollern dynasty collapsed in 1918 with the abdication of Emperor William II, the Second Reich came to its end.  That was followed by the Weimar Republic which lasted from 1918 to 1933. In turn, it was followed by Hitler's Third Reich which he regarded as an empire that would also last for 1000 years. (Hitler had adopted the term 'Third Reich' in the early 1920s after the German writer Arthur Moeller von der Bruck used it as a title for one of his books).

Bellamy's admiration for ancient Rome and for the military inspired Bellamy to espouse "military socialism" and nationalization of the entire economy including schools.

The Bellamys were self-proclaimed National Socialists in the USA three decades before the National Socialists in Germany, and the USA's National Socialists promoted their dogma and their original straight-armed salute to the USA's flag for three decades ahead of the similar dogma and behavior of National Socialists in Germany.

It was a philosophy that led to the socialist Wholecaust (of which the Holocaust was a part) where millions were murdered (62 million by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 35 million by the Peoples' Republic of China, 21 million by the National Socialist German Workers' Party) in the worst slaughter in history.  The slaughter was so enormous that Holocaust Museums can triple in size and scope as Wholecaust Museums.  That is why the Bellamys are known as America's Nazis.

Every Holocaust Museum should include Francis Bellamy and his pledge as the source of the Nazi salute.

When children chant the pledge each morning in the government's schools across the USA, they naively re-enact the source of the Nazi salute and similar dogma.

In 1898 the New York state legislature was the first in the nation to pass a statute forcing children in government schools to robotically chant the socialist's pledge. In 1905, as many as 19 States had passed school flag laws.  To this very day New York still has a law forcing teachers to lead a recitation of the socialist pledge in socialist schools (government schools).  Many other states do too.

Rome NY boasts that it is the final resting place for Francis Bellamy, author of the pledge of allegiance.  True enough, though Bellamy died somewhere else.  Tampa Florida boasts that it is where Francis Bellamy died, and Tampa also boasts that it is where the socialist's pledge of allegiance will die too.

To this very day, the school banner for the Rome Free Academy appears as it does on this page   It contains two fasces (axes through the middle of wood with binding).  The fasces actually was a symbol of government authority in ancient Rome.  The straight-arm salute was not.  The word "fasces" is the origin of the word "fascism."   Mussolini was a long-time socialist and adopted the term "fascist" to describe his dogma late in his life. see below and

The Bellamys were the original New York liberals, albeit from Rome.

fascist symbols of Rome Free Academy

Benito Mussolini was the leader of the Socialist Party of Italy.  Like many modern media Mussolinis, he was a socialist and a journalist. Between 1912 and 1914 he was the editor of the Socialist Party newspaper, "L'Avanti" (Avanti means "in front", "advance" or "forward" or even "come in"). In 1914 he started his own socialist newspaper "Il Popolo d'Italia" ("The people of Italy"). 

He was considered by socialists to be a great writer about socialism. He was a staunch proponent of revolutionary rather than reformist socialism, and actually received Lenin's endorsement and support for expelling reformists from the Socialist Party.  He was in fact first dubbed "Il Duce" (the Leader) when he was a member of Italy's (Marxist) Socialist Party. 

When Mussolini differed with some Socialists it was over participation in World War I, not over abstract theory, or economic doctrine.   Many socialists were neutralists in the First World War, whereas Mussolini correctly foresaw that the Austro/German forces would not win the war and therefore wanted Italy to join the Allied side and thus get a slice of Austrian territory at the end of the war. 

During World War I, Mussolini publicized what he admitted was his new brand of socialism.

On October 28, 1922, Mussolini led his "March on Rome", which brought him to power for 23 years.

In late 1937, Mussolini visited Germany and pledged himself to support the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. 

In 1938, he introduced his ‘reform of customs.’”  Hand-shaking was suddenly banned as unhygienic: a salute was to be used instead - the right forearm raised vertically.  He imposed a new march on the Italian Army which was simply the goose-step of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party.  According to the book “A Concise History of Italy” by Christopher Duggan, these reforms were introduced mainly to underline ideological kinship with the National Socialist German Workers’ Party and to impress it’s leader. 

The so-called “Roman salute” (saluto romano) is as much of a fiction as is the so-called “Roman step” (passo romano) as is the idea that the National Socialist German Workers’ Party emulated Mussolini and not vice versa.  

The most notorious instance of Italy imitating the National Socialist German Workers’ Party was in the racist laws imposed in November 1938. 

Before and during it all (from 1892), children in the U.S. attended government-schools where racism and segregation were mandated by law, and where they performed a straight-armed salute to the U.S. flag, and were forced to robotically chant a pledge written by a national socialist who wanted to produce an “industrial army” for totalitarian socialism as popularized worldwide in a best-selling novel.  

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New York Historical Society: Why are there so many towns and cities with classical names in New York State?  Many of the towns were named between 1790 and 1830 when memories of Revolutionary War battles fought against the British and their American Indian allies were still raw. The result was most likely a reluctance to use English or native-American place names and to rely on the dignity of ancient names, then enjoying a general resurgence as part of a neo-classical revival in architecture, furniture, and clothing styles. Nonetheless, the nearly 200 classical names were so prevalent in New York that they were remarked upon, often satirically, as early as 1819. Commentators placed the responsibility on Simeon DeWitt, the state Surveyor-General who surveyed a large tract of land in 1790 and produced a new map littered with towns bearing classical names. DeWitt finally denied responsibility, claiming that he "knew nothing of these obnoxious names" until they were officially communicated to him. They were the work, he asserted, of commissioners in the state Land Office.  (Sources: Flick, Alexander C., ed. History of the State of New York. Vol 10, The Empire State. Port Washington, N.Y.: Ira J. Friedman, Inc., 1962, c1937;  Rennie, John R. Representing the Republic: Mapping the United States, 1600-1900. London: Reaktion, 2001).   New York City has been called the "Empire City" with the Empire State Building, Empire State College, etc.  It is a reference to the "Roman Empire" in the sense that New York is the "Roman Empire State" and the famous building is the "Roman Empire State Building."

Nationalist Magazine, Nationalist Educational Association 1889

Francis Bellamy and his cousin and cohort, the author Edward Bellamy, wanted government to take over all schools as a socialist monopoly, end all of the better alternatives, and use government schools to produce an "industrial army" (a Bellamy term) explicitly modeled upon the military. Francis Bellamy used his position with the National Education Association (NEA) to promote "military socialism." Edward Bellamy published the “Nationalist” magazine and both Bellamys supported its publisher, the “Nationalist Educational Association,” (NEA) (see bottom of photo) named with deliberate similarity to the National Education Association.

The court case of Frank Herbert Wonschik v. U.S., argued that the jury selection process was impermissibly tainted by the trial judge's request that all potential jurors stand and recite the pledge of allegiance prior to jury selection. Furthermore, that bias also transgressed the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

All in favor of a pledge raise your right hand...

You can own the historic collectible out-of-print book "Twenty-Three Words" by Margarette S. Miller for only $100. It is an eye-popping biography of Francis Bellamy, author of the pledge of allegiance. The book is in mint condition, never used. This may be the only opportunity to obtain this mind-boggling book   Just use the donation button at to purchase the book and communicate with this website at lawyer AT

Material available from Rochester University -

#  "Francis M. Bellamy, Patriotic Writer, Dies" New York Times August 30, 19312. "Flag Pledge Author Dies at Home Here" Tampa Daily Times,
# August 29, 1931.
# "Author of Flag Pledge Dies at His Home Here" Tampa Tribune, August 29, 1931.
# "His Words Will Live Forever" Tampa Tribune, September 1, 1931
# Rochester Alumni Review, October/November 1931, page 16.
# "This is Flag Day, Let's Take the Pledge Again" Tampa Daily Times, June 14, 1931.
# "Roman Lived to See U. S. Adopt Famed Flag Salute" Utica Observer, August 28, 1936

16. Women's National Relief Corps "Story of Origin and Author of the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag" 1923, reprinted 1936.
4. United States Marine Corps "How to Respect and Display Our Flag" booklet, 1942
6. "Patriot's Pledge" paper by Grace and Knickerbacker Davis, for Every Week (no date)
4. Correspondence with Edward W. Bok and Lorillard Spencer, 1895-1896
   5. Letter to Francis Bellamy from Theodore Roosevelt, September 30, 1895
   6. Free Mason Membership Certificate, 1886
   8. Letter to Francis Bellamy from Grover Cleveland, April 7, 1897
   9. Letter to Francis Bellamy from Grover Cleveland, September 26, 1897
  10. Souvenirs of Trip to Europe, 1901
         2. Chas. H. Mills (Director of Publicity for the Boy Scouts of America) to Francis Bellamy, March 16, 1923
         7. E. S. Martin (Secretary of the Editorial Board of the Boy Scouts of America) to Mrs. W. N. McKay, May 6, 1929 (misdated? 1923?)
        10. D. Braman (President of the Allied Patriotic Societies, Inc.) to F. Bellamy, May 11, 1923
  18. Correspondence between David Bellamy and World Almanac and Bartlett's Quotations, 1939-1959

   1. Writings by Bellamy (see also exhibit C, box 1, folder 3)
         1. Columbus Day Oration, October 21, 1896
   2. The Illustrated American, edited by Francis Bellamy, 1896
   3. The Bookman, 1899, containing an article by Francis Bellamy
   4. The Criterion, edited by Francis Bellamy, 1900
   5. "The Metropolitan Pulpit," series in The Sun and replies, 1901
   6. Newspaper Clippings about and written by Bellamy (before 1900)
   7. Bellamy writings:
         1. Diaries (see also Exhibit Group C, Box 1, Folder 3)
               1. Vacation Diary, 1890
               2. Diary, 1896
         4. "What Play for Individuality under Socialism?" handwritten by Bellamy (note on front indicates he presented this at:
               1. Reality Club in 1890
               2. National Club in 1890
               3. Nationalist Club in 1891
               4. Current Events Club, Portland, January 13, 1892
               5. [?] Club, New York, May 13, 1896
         5. Letter to the Committee on Christian Work of the Social Union from F. Bellamy, January 1, 1891
         6. "The Tyranny of All the People" by Francis Bellamy, in The Arena July, 1891 (p. 180-191)
         7. "Is America Developing an Aristocracy?" in Everybody's Magazine June 1904 (p.772-784).
         8. An Address Before the Alumni" by Francis Bellamy, Class of 1876, Bulletin of the University of Rochester, The Fifty-Sixth Commencement, June 1906 (Appendix)
         9. "Oil Magnate is No Hypocrite in Ordinary Sense: Francis Bellamy Discusses Political and Business Graft," Rochester Herald, June 19, 1906
        10. "Little Advertising Stories" in Everybody's Magazine, by Francis Bellamy
               1. "Where is the 'Faith,' in Advertising or in Not Advertising?" (no date)
               2. "It's All in the Shreds" n.d.
               3. "There is Quality in Every Drop," n.d.
               4. Little Advertising Stories booklet, with name of "Robert Frothingham" crossed out and "Francis Bellamy" penciled below, 1910
               5. "There's a Reason," 1910
               6. "The Silver Plate That Wears," n.d.
        11. "The Autobiography of a Life Assurance Agent" reprinted from Everybody's Magazine, March 1903
        12. "A War Story of American Enterprise" The Saturday Evening Post, November 7, 1914
               1. also printed in Everybody's Magazine, n.d.
        13. "A Newcomer into an Ancient Family" in Everybody's Magazine, May 1915
        14. A New Plan for Counter-Attack on the Nations Internal Foes: How to Mobilize the Masses to Support Primary American Doctrines by Francis Bellamy, May 1, 1923
   8. Un-Dated Materials written by Bellamy
         1. "Why Roosevelt is our Best Guarantee of Peace" published in unidentified magazine.
         2. The Prospectus of a Unique and Popular Family Monthly Magazine to be called "The People" Presented by Francis Bellamy, author of the Idea of this Magazine, typescript.
         3. "Strict Accountability" as Applied to the President, by Francis Bellamy, Issued by the National Hughes Alliance, typescript.
         4. "Gossip about the New President Roosevelt" manuscript.
         5. "How I Came to Be a Nurse" by Franklin Bell (Francis Bellamy penciled in)
         6. "The Oldest Piano in America" by Francis Bellamy from Everybody's Magazine
         7. "What the Article in Everybody's Magazine said concerning the KNABE Piano"
         8. "Everybody's Educational Directory: College Preparatory and Military Schools for Boys," "Country or City Schools for Girls," and "Why Go Away to School?"
         9. The Fortune Hunter by Francis Bellamy
        10. How I came to Be an Advertising Man by Francis Bellamy, typescript.
        11. No title, "For this once, let us talk about a piano without a single superlative…", typescript.