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Much has been written about socialism, communism, and Marxism and of  Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Vladimir Lenin. Most books need additional information about the impact within the United States, and the influence upon the Bellamys, and the influence of the Bellamys upon Marxists, socialists, and communists in Germany and worldwide.

The book Das Kapital (1867) by Karl Marx and the book Looking Backward (1887) by Edward Bellamy were ranked as the most influential books (first and second respectively) in a Columbia University survey of 1935. The scholars surveyed compared Bellamy and Marx for blending or as alternatives.

Although Marx's book Das Kapital had been published in 1867 (the year before Edward Bellamy's trip to Germany), it was not translated into English until after 1886. Thus its English translation, distribution and influence coincided with Bellamy's book of 1888.

A weekly publication that promoted Bellamy ideas was sold in advertisements that combined it with the book Capital by Marx as a package deal (see The New Nation, 1891-94). The Marx book was the translation by Dr. Edward Aveling.

Advertisements listed together the books of Charles Bellamy, Edward Bellamy and Karl Marx (1891)
and at

The writer Gail Collins stated: ...far more American workers read Looking Backward than ever made it through Marx... (Tomorrow Never Knows, The Nation, Vol. 252, Issue # 2, January 21, 1991).

Merritt Abrash described the Bellamy philosophy as Marxism americanized (see Looking Backward: Marxism Americanized, In M.S. Cummings & N.D. Smith (Eds.)., Utopian Studies IV (pp. 6-9). Lanham, MD: University Press of America (1991).

In 1886 Dr. Edward Aveling and his wife Eleanor -the daughter of Karl Marx- wrote that when they toured the U.S. and preached the gospel of socialism (organized by the Socialist Party of America) as far westward as Kansas, they were surprised by the prevalence of what they termed: unconscious socialism. They said: the American people ... were waiting to hear in their own language what socialism is.  Edward Bellamy then wrote Looking Backward in 1887 and it became an international bestseller.

Looking Backward was translated into every major language including Russian. It inspired the creation of 167 Bellamy Clubs worldwide. In its time, it was outsold only by Uncle Toms Cabin and Ben-Hur. The book appears by title in many major Marxist writings of the day. Eric Fromm said: It is one of the few books ever published that created almost immediately on its appearance a political mass movement (Eric Fromm introduction to Looking Backward, p vi).

The book was popular in pre-revolutionary Russia, and the wife to Lenin was known to have read the book, because she wrote a review of it. In Bellamy's later book "Equality," the post office replaces the military as Bellamy's model of military socialism. It might have influenced Lenin and his Germanizing State and Revolution written much later.

Edward Bellamy was the cousin and collaborator of Francis Bellamy (author of: the Pledge of Allegiance).  Francis Bellamy and Edward Bellamy and Charles Bellamy (author of: A Moment of Madness) and Frederick Bellamy (who introduced Edward to socialistic Fourierism) were all socialists.  Edward, Charles and Frederick were brothers, and Francis was their cousin.

Karl Heinrich Marx was a German socialist philosopher (born May 5, 1818 in Trier, Germany and died March 14, 1883 in London).  

From 1868-9 Edward Bellamy spent a year in Dresden, learning to speak and write German and attending lectures and studying German socialism.  While Bellamy was in Germany, the first German unions were founded and the German Workers' Party (Die Deutsche Arbeiterpartei  - it became the National Socialist German Workers' Party) issued its program and the ideas were repeated in by Bellamy in his bestseller and in his other writings.   Edward's brother Frederick wrote that Edward's letters to him were full of German socialism which "he had read and studied much at home." (see Sylvia E. Bowman "The Year 2000").

In November, 1888, Edward personally made a contract with an interpreter to translate Looking Backward into German (see the biography by Arthur Morgan, p. 65).  In 1891, American advertisements listed German-language editions of Bellamy's book and stated that the novel "Lays the foundation of the Nationalist Movement." 

The advertisements coincide with the "Nationalist" magazine of Edward Bellamy, published by the "Nationalist Educational Association."   The German translation not only promoted National Socialism in Germany, it also promoted National Socialism in America and cultivated those Americans who later supported the USA's German-American Bund movement that supported German National Socialism.  

Edward Bellamy and Karl Marx both studied law but did not practice. Neither one understood supply and demand, nor free market activity in the least.  Marx was not able to hold a regular job.  He was a parasite to his wife, Jenny (she had more class than Marx and was from a higher class than Marx), and his more affluent philosophical comrade, Friedrich Engels. Marx fanatically penned turgid, unmarketable economic claptrap. He also preached the imminent revolution of the masses (whom he loathed).

Francis Bellamy and Edward Bellamy were both self-proclaimed National Socialists and they supported the Nationalism movement in the USA, the Nationalist magazine, and the Nationalist Educational Association. They wanted to nationalize everything and they wanted all of society to ape the military and they touted military socialism and the industrial army.  The book by Edward was an international bestseller, translated into every major language (including German) and he inspired the Nationalist Party (in the USA) and their dogma influenced socialists worldwide (including Germany) via Nationalist Clubs. 

The Pledge of Allegiance by Francis Bellamy was the origin of the notorious salute of the National Socialist German Workers Party.  The original pledge began with a military salute that then stretched out toward the flag.  In actual use, the second part of the gesture was performed with a straight arm and palm down by disinterested children perfunctorily performing the forced ritual chanting by extending the initial military salute, as shown by the top authority, Professor Rex Curry. Due to the way that both gestures were used sequentially in the pledge, the military salute led to the hard, stylized salute of the National Socialist German Workers Party.  The Nazi salute is an extended military salute via the pledge in the USA. Shocking photographs are at

It was not an ancient Roman salute, and the "ancient Roman salute" is a myth. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) supports Dr. Curry's discoveries. 

The Roman myth grew in many ways, including the use of the USA's pledge salute in early movies showing fictional Roman scenes. At the time that the straight-arm salute was found by Mussolini and the German National Socialist leader, they were both self-proclaimed socialists and leaders in their movements. 

The flag used by the National Socialist German Workers Party (the swastika flag) was altered to incorporate alphabetic symbolism under the leader of the National Socialists.  The notorious symbol (the swastika), although it was an ancient symbol, was used sometimes by the National Socialist German Workers Party to represent overlapping S letters for their socialism as discovered by Dr. Rex Curry. 

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) listings (for the words: swastika and Hakenkreuz) support the discoveries. The same symbolism is shown in the bizarre signature of the National Socialist leader, which he altered to use the same stylized S letter for socialist; he turned the symbol 45 degrees to the horizontal and oriented it in the S direction; and similar alphabetic symbolism was used for the SS Division and similar alphabetic symbolism still shows on Volkswagens.

The National Socialist German Workers' Party and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics joined together as allies in 1939 to invade Poland, in a plan to divide up Europe.

The Bellamys and the pledge inspired socialists worldwide, and in the places of the socialist Wholecaust (of which the Holocaust was a part): 62 million slaughtered under the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; 35 million slaughtered under the Peoples Republic of China; 21 million slaughtered under the National Socialist German Workers' Party.

The Bellamys promoted a government takeover of schools, the placement of flags at the schools, and robotic chanting of the pledge to the flag with the old notorious gesture.  When the government granted their wish, the government schools imposed segregation by law and taught racism as official government policy.  The schools mandated chanting of the pledge with the old-style salute and persecuted and expelled children who would not comply, arrested parents, and even took children from parents on allegations of unfit parenting.

The USA still follows similar anti libertarian policies promoted by the Bellamys. Many socialist Bellamy policies caused the big, expensive and oppressive government in the USA and its growing police-state. The Pledge still exists along with laws mandating that teachers lead the robotic pledge chanting every day for twelve years in the life of each child (though the salute was altered). The government still owns and operates schools, including the same schools that imposed segregation by law and taught racism as official government policy.  The U.S. practice of imposing segregation by law in government schools and teaching racism as official policy even outlasted the National Socialist German Workers Party by over 15 years. After segregation in government schools ended, the Bellamy legacy caused more police-state racism of forced busing that destroyed communities and neighborhoods and deepened hostilities. Those schools still exist.  Infants are given social security numbers that track and tax them for life.  Government schools demand the numbers for enrollment.

The pledge and flags have become symbols of government run amok and are examples of how dangerous government schools are. One cynic quipped: governments are criminal gangs with flags.  Another declared: remove the pledge from the flag, remove flags from schools, and remove schools from government.

The government in the USA and the government schools hide those facts from people in the USA and from people in other countries.


1874 The Religion of Solidarity is written by Edward Bellamy. It combined socialism with religion, and argues that individuality is a delusion and/or is unimportant. It advocates that each individual subsume himself/herself to anything and everything else, as repeated later in  Looking Backward.

1879 The Breton Mills - A Romance by Charles Joseph Bellamy is published G.P. Putnam's Sons in New York.

1880 Edward and his brother, Charles, founded a tri-weekly, the Springfield Penny News, that became the Springfield Daily News.

1887 Edward Bellamy’s bible of military socialism “Looking Backward” is published and becomes an international bestseller translated into every major language including Russian, Chinese, and German and it inspires the creation of 167 “Nationalist Clubs” worldwide. In its time, it was outsold only by Uncle Tom's Cabin and Ben-Hur (set in Rome). The book appears by title in many major Marxist writings of the day. "It is one of the few books ever published that created almost immedately on its appearance a politcal mass movement." (Eric Fromm, p vi) 165. The book was popular among the elite in pre-revolutionary Russia, and Lenin’s wife was known to have read the book, because she wrote a review of it.  

1843 (published Feb.1844) Karl Marx wrote his notorious, “On the Jewish Question.”  In it, he intended to libel Jewish folks when he said they were the quintessential capitalists and worthy of total contempt.   Marxists and socialists had no interest in anyone they considered to be “the weak,” only in the loyal, and their “language of social justice” concerned a totalitarian plan for a new man, or more accurately a soldier ant in an ant hill.

1848 The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx is published.

1850 EDWARD BELLAMY was born (and died in 1898).

1867 Karl Marx's book Das Kapital had been published in 1867, the year before Edward Bellamy's trip to Germany.  It was not translated into English until after 1886. Marx's ideas in Capital had been promoted in newspapers and pamphlets in English.  Edward Bellamy learned how to speak and write in German during his stay in Germany.  While Bellamy was in Germany, Marx fought with Bakunin and Proudhon in the First International about their fundamentals of "social revolution."  Bebel and Liebknecht took part in the debates, also.

Karl Marx was born into a progressive and wealthy Jewish family in Trier, in the Rhineland region of Germany. His father Heinrich, who had descended from a long line of rabbis, converted to Christianity, despite his many deistic tendencies. Marx's father was actually born Herschel Mordechai, but when the Prussian authorities would not allow him to continue practicing law as a Jew, he joined the official denomination of the Prussian state, Lutheranism, which accorded him advantages, as one of a small minority of Lutherans in a predominantly Roman Catholic region. The Marx household hosted many visiting intellectuals and artists during Karl's early life.


After graduating from the Trier gymnasium (school), Marx enrolled in the University of Bonn in 1835 at the age of 17 to study law, where he joined the Trier Tavern Club drinking society and at one point served as its president; his grades suffered as a result. Marx was interested in studying philosophy and literature, but his father would not allow it because he did not believe that Karl would be able to comfortably support himself in the future as a scholar. The following year, his father forced him to transfer to the far more serious and academically oriented Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin. During this period, Marx wrote many poems and essays concerning life, using the theological language acquired from his liberal, deistic father, such as "the Deity," but also absorbed the atheistic philosophy of the left-Hegelians who were prominent in Berlin at the time. Marx earned a doctorate in 1841 with a thesis titled The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature.

It is important to remember that during this time of Bellamy's great influence, the National Socialist German Workers’ Party had been in existence since 1920, with electoral breakthroughs in 1930, and dictatorship in 1933.

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