HITLER SALUTE, ROMAN SALUTE IN OED Roman Salute http://rexcurry.net/roman_salute_roman_salute_roman_salute.jpg Roman Salutes
Pledge of Allegiance to the flag The USA's Pledge of Allegiance (& the military salute) was the origin of Adolf Hitler's "Nazi" salute under the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis). http://rexcurry.net/pledge2.html

The swastika was used by the military and by socialists in the USA and in the USSR, before it was used by the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP).
The swastika, although an ancient symbol, was also used to represent "S" letters joined for "socialism" under the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis), similar to the alphabetical symbolism for the SS Division, the SA, the NSV, and the VW logo (the letters "V" and "W" joined for "Volkswagen"). http://rexcurry.net/bookchapter4a1a2a1.html
Francis Bellamy & Edward Bellamy touted National Socialism and the police state in the USA decades before their dogma was exported to Germany. They influenced the NSDAP, its dogma, symbols and rituals. http://rexcurry.net/police-state.html and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BssWWZ3XEe4

The Ancient Roman Salute Myth
Roman Salute, Hitler salute, Nazi salute, Fascist salute

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) supports Dr. Rex Curry's discovery that the Hitler salute originated in the United States.

Dr. Curry showed that the USA's early pledge of allegiance to the flag (1892) used a straight-arm salute and it was the source of the salute of the monstrous National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis). The salute of German Socialists has sometimes been labeled an "ancient Roman salute."  Dr. Curry helped to establish that it was not an ancient Roman salute, and that the "ancient Roman salute" is a modern myth that grew during and after the lives of Edward Bellamy (1850-1898) and Francis Bellamy (1855-1931). http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-pledge.html

The earliest OED reference to "Roman salute" is a 1959 reference to the Chambers's Encyclopedia. The OED states: "Chambers's Encycl. XII. 173/2 Special forms of salute, the clenched fist salute of the Communists, the ‘Roman salute’ of the Fascists and the Hitler salute, have been a feature of modern political life." 

Chambers's Encyclopedia puts the Roman reference in quotation marks, as if to indicate that it is the "so-called" Roman salute and that the phrase is not historically accurate.  The Chambers Encyclopedia thus supports Dr. Curry's discoveries.

An earlier OED reference exists for "raised-arm salute" in a 1943 reference to a David Gascoyne poem. The poem states, "...the centurions wear riding-boots, Black shirts and badges and peaked caps, Greet one another with raised-arm salutes...."   Gascoyne did not use the term "Roman salute," and that may suggest that the gesture was not widely known by that name at that time.  Gascoyne's poem shows how the Roman salute myth spread.  Gascoyne was a surrealist and his poem mixes images from a Roman crucifixion with images under the National Socialist German Workers' Party.  Gascoyne had joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1936 and broadcast some radio talks for the Barcelona-based propaganda ministry. However, he soon became disillusioned and left the party.

The New York Times also supports Dr. Curry's work. The phrase was used in the New York Times on page 3 of of 9 December 1922 in an Associated Press article datelined London, 8 December, under the headline LONDON HAILS MUSSOLINI.  The first sentence of the third paragraph is "As the Italian Premier, who is known only by name and deed to most of the member of the Fascisti organization in London, stepped from the train, he was greeted by rows of outstretched arms in the Roman salute." The term was used again on p. 4 of the edition of 18 Sept. 1923 ('... today black-shirted Fascisti give the Roman salute to the scowling Mussolini as he enter or leaves its gates'), on p. 12 of the edition of 1 Nov. 1923 ('... where Mussolini alighted and walked, bare-headed and with his arm extended in the Roman salute, ...'), on p. 25 of the edition of 16 Sept. 1924, on p.1 of the edition of 27 Mar. 1925, four more times in 1925, and repeatedly in 1926. The preceding references support Dr. Curry's idea that the American Pledge salute spread to Italy (via travel and migration to and fro, film, et cetera), and that the "Roman" label grew due to its spread in Italy, and thereafter people began to imagine that it was ancient.

Dr. Curry knows of two other uses of "Roman salute" that pre-date the OED reference (neither from the New York Times) one in 1937, and the other is 1938, and the references are by different authors.

When the term "Roman salute" developed, the straight-arm salute was a decades-old ritual in government schools in the USA where the gesture was compelled with robotic chanting of the Pledge Of Allegiance. The gesture originated in the USA from the military salute extended outward in the early Pledge. http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-pledge.html

Even the author of the Pledge of Allegiance, Francis Bellamy, specifically described how he created the salute and he did not base it on any Roman salute myth. Bellamy never used the term "Roman salute" in his life, and he did not even know of such a myth as the myth did not exist at that time, as shown by Dr. Curry (the "Libertarian Lawyer").  The myth developed from the Pledge. The OED also supports those facts.

The OED also supports Dr. Curry’s work in that there is no example of Hitler ever referring to the salute as a “Roman salute.”  Other sources show that Hitler referred to it as the “German salute.”  Hitler said he first saw the salute about 1921 at a Ratskeller in Bremen.  The OED also gives examples of the phrase “Hitler salute” that pre-date the OED references for “Roman salute.”

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) also supports Dr. Rex Curry's discovery that the swastika was used by the Nazi Party to symbolize meshed "S" letters for "socialism." http://rexcurry.net/swastika-hakenkreuz-oxford-english-dictionary.html 

Wikipedia has helped to spread the news about Dr. Curry's news-making work. Recent articles at opinioneditorials.com report on the many references to Dr. Curry's research and discoveries on Wikipedia. Dr. Curry's work might be the most referenced historical research on Wikipedia. Even Wikipedia founder Jimmy "Jimbo" Wales  has publicly noted Dr. Curry's influence on Wikipedia. Wikipedia writers have reviewed and verified the work. Some Wikipedia writers use Dr. Curry's work without attribution in apparent attempts to bolster their own credibility. http://rexcurry.net/roman-salute-metropolitan-museum-of-art.html

Amazon.com is following policy recommendations that are advocated by Dr. Rex Curry. Amazon's web site deletes and discourages use of the common 4-letter shorthand n-word for "National Socialist German Workers' Party" within Amazon's reviews, product information, tags and other uses.  By fighting the shorthand term, Amazon encourages customers to learn and to use the actual accurate name of the monstrous group: National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSGWP). http://rexcurry.net/amazon-com-book-reviews-tags-discussions.html

For a long time, Dr. Curry has exposed widespread ignorance in the media and in the general public about what the 4-letter abbreviation abbreviates. That etymological ignorance has grown through overuse of the hackneyed shorthand term in print and in government schools (socialist schools).  Dr. Curry has advocated that the shorthand term should be avoided, unless it is used in conjunction with the full actual name of the Party. Amazon is helping Dr. Curry to reverse the ignorant habit within the media and the public.

Dr. Curry's work has been recognized in the vexillological group Flags Of The World (FOTW) http://rexcurry.net/fotw-flags-of-the-world-vexillology.html

And also in the North American Vexillological Association (NAVA) http://rexcurry.net/north-american-vexillological-association-nava.html

Dr. Curry's news-making work is discussed on Odeo Radio at http://odeo.com/audio/1747108/view

And also on Radio Indymedia at http://radio.indymedia.org/news/2006/08/10827.php

And also covered at Opinion Editorials at http://www.opinioneditorials.com/writer.php?id=rcurry
With more at OpinionEditorials at http://www.opinioneditorials.com/guestcontributors/rcurry_20050826.html

Although no support exists for the "ancient Roman salute," support does exist for the use of the middle finger in ancient Rome. There is more support for the "middle finger" as the "ancient Roman salute" according to "Straight Dope" and Cecil Adams (who has never had the guts to discuss the Pledge of Allegiance as the origin of the Nazi salute (a discovery by the historian Dr. Rex Curry), despite having been DARED PUBLICLY to discuss it. According to Adams:  The "one-finger salute" is thousands of years old. In Gestures: Their Origins and Distribution, Desmond Morris and colleagues note that the digitus infamis or digitus impudicus (infamous or indecent finger) is mentioned several times in the literature of ancient Rome. Two references are from the epigrammatist Martial. Another reference is from the historian Suetonius. http://rexcurry.net/roman-salute-oxford-english-dictionary.html

The stiff-finger salute would be a more appropriate gesture for the Pledge of Allegiance.  

The original Pledge of Allegiance began with a military salute that then stretched out toward the flag. Historic photographs are at http://rexcurry.net/pledge2.html and at http://rexcurry.net/pledge_military.html   In actual use, the second part of the gesture was performed with a straight arm and palm down by children extending the military salute while perfunctorily performing the forced ritual chanting.  Professor Curry showed that, due to the way that both gestures were used sequentially in the pledge, the military salute led to the hard, stylized salute of German socialists. The Nazi salute is an extended military salute via the pledge. http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-pledge.html

Francis Bellamy (author of the "Pledge of Allegiance") and Edward Bellamy (author of the novel "Looking Backward") and Charles Bellamy (author of "A Moment of Madness") and Frederick Bellamy (who introduced Edward to socialistic "Fourierism") were socialists.  Edward, Charles and Frederick were brothers, and Francis was their cousin. Francis and Edward were both self-proclaimed National Socialists and they supported the "Nationalism" movement in the USA, the "Nationalist" magazine, and the "Nationalist Educational Association." They wanted to nationalize everything and they wanted all of society to ape the military and they touted "military socialism" and the "industrial army."  Edward inspired the "Nationalist Party" (in the USA) and their dogma influenced socialists worldwide (including Germany) via “Nationalist Clubs.”   http://rexcurry.net/bellamy-edward-german-connections.html  The Pledge was the origin of the Nazi salute. "Nazi" means "National Socialist German Workers' Party." A mnemonic device is the swastika. Although the swastika was an ancient symbol, Professor Curry discovered that it was also used sometimes by German National Socialists to represent "S" letters for their "socialism."  Curry changed the way that people view the symbol of the horrid National Socialist German Workers' Party. Hitler altered his own signature to use the same stylized "S" letter for "socialist" and similar alphabetic symbolism still shows on Volkswagens. http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-swastika.html

The Roman salute myth is still repeated in modern efforts to cover-up Dr. Curry's discoveries about the Pledge's poisonous pedigree.

The Bellamys promoted a government takeover of schools.  When the government granted their wish, the government schools imposed segregation by law and taught racism as official government policy.  The schools mandated the robotic chanting of the pledge with the Nazi-style salute and persecuted and expelled children who would not comply, arrested parents, and even took children from parents on allegations of "unfit parenting."

The USA still follows similar anti libertarian policies promoted by the Bellamys. Many socialist Bellamy policies caused the USA’s big, expensive and oppressive government and its growing police-state. The Pledge still exists along with laws mandating that teachers lead the robotic pledge chanting every day for twelve years of each child’s life (though the salute was altered). The government still owns and operates schools, including the same schools that imposed segregation by law and taught racism as official government policy.  The U.S. practice of imposing segregation by law in government schools and teaching racism as official policy even outlasted the National Socialist German Workers' Party by over 15 years. After segregation in government's schools ended, the Bellamy legacy caused more police-state racism of forced busing that destroyed communities and neighborhoods and deepened hostilities. Those schools still exist.  Infants are given social security numbers that track and tax them for life.  Government schools demand the numbers for enrollment.

People who attended government schools in the USA are shocked to learn of the new discoveries, and they have difficulty responding in a rational manner. They are humiliated and embarrassed that they have been kept ignorant by government schools and even lied to while being led in robotic chanting for 12 years.  The stereotypical response  involves a state of denial where the respondent can formulate no factual dispute (a mental block-out of the factual history) and only childish insults that evade the topic altogether. It shows how conditioned US citizens are by the years of robotic chanting.  Some US citizens are not able to face the reality of the history of the pledge. The pledge has become an example of how dangerous government schools are.  The pledge is a primary justification for ending government schools.  As the saying goes "remove the pledge from the flag, the flag from the schools, and the schools from government."

ROMAN SALUTE http://rexcurry.net/roman_salute_roman_salute_roman_salute.jpg Roman salute
Roman salute Roman salute Roman salute
ROMAN SALUTE http://rexcurry.net/roman_salute_roman_salute_roman_salute.jpg Roman salute
Julian West, James Upham, Youths Companion, Nationalism, Socialist Revolution, Theosophical, Theosophy, Blavatsky

Pledge of Allegiance youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BssWWZ3XEe4 youtube Pledge of Allegiance

Things in America that were ruined by socialists (e.g. German National Socialists):
1. The early American stiff-armed Pledge of Allegiance salute.
2. The Charlie Chaplin toothbrush moustache.
3. The Boy Scout swastika badge.

The leaders of the “new Rome” myth constantly seek to ensnare us in a “devil’s bargain”: a false promise to keep us safe if only we will give up all our rights to privacy and dissent, and hand over to them our allegiance for their socialism and their various wars. In Madison, WI, the local school board refused a call from the federal government after 9/11 to compel school children to recite the Pledge of Allegiance in unison.       -- From the web.

PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE http://rexcurry.net/pledge-allegiance-pledge-allegiance.jpg FRANCIS BELLAMY
SWASTIKA http://rexcurry.net/swastika3clear.jpg SWASTIKA
Edward Bellamy Swastika, Industrial Army
SWASTIKA http://rexcurry.net/swastika3clear.jpg EDWARD BELLAMY

Rex Curry blog spot http://rexcurry.blogspot.com/

Pledge of Allegiance blog spot http://pledge-of-allegiance.blogspot.com/

Pledge Allegiance blog spot http://pledge-allegiance.blogspot.com/