Roman Salute & Benito Mussolini -The raised one
arm salute is a myth
Francis Bellamy, Edward Bellamy, the Pledge of Allegiance, Socialist
The Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology, exposed
by Dr. Rex Curry
The USA's Pledge of Allegiance (& the military salute)
was the origin of the one arm salute under the National Socialist German
Workers Party (Nazis). http://rexcurry.net/pledge2.html
The swastika, although an ancient symbol,
was also used to represent "S" letters joined for "socialism" under
the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis), similar to the
alphabetical symbolism for the SS Division, the SA, the NSV, and the
VW logo (the letters "V" and "W" joined for "Volkswagen"). http://rexcurry.net/bookchapter4a1a2a1.html
The USA's early Pledge of Allegiance (to the flag) was the origin of the
salute of the monstrous National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis),
as shown by the historian Dr. Rex Curry. http://rexcurry.net/pledge2.html
Building from the USA's pledge of allegiance, the raised-arm salute was
used in fictional Roman scenes in these films: the American "Ben-Hur" (1907),
the Italian "Nerone" (1908), "Spartaco" (1914), and "Cabiria" (1914). Those
scenes helped lead to the "Roman salute" myth. The Roman myth is still
repeated in modern efforts to cover-up Dr. Curry's discoveries about the Pledge's
The self-styled Italian "Consul" Gabriele D 'Annunzio had worked with
Giovanni Pastrone in his colossal epic Cabiria (1914). In imitation
of such films, D'Annunzio borrowed the salute as a propaganda tool
for his political ambitions upon his occupation of Fiume in 1919. Annoyed
that Italy had lost the town of Fiume, D´Annunzio´s troops occupied
the town and he ruled it for eighteen months until 1920. He declared war
against Italy but was finally forced to retreat.
Benito Mussolini worked with D'Annunzio and was much influenced by him.
Mussolini was aware of D'Annunzio's Charter of Carnaro for his Regency of
Carnaro in the city of Fiume. Mussolini was familiar with films and with D'Annunzio's
work in the film Cabiria. From 1914 to 1919 (and before), and during the
time that Mussolini found and acquired the socialist salute, Mussolini (1883-1945)
was a self-described socialist, a well-known socialist leader who was respected
among socialists at that time (that time when he found his socialist salute).
Between 1912 and 1914, Mussolini was the editor of the Socialist Party newspaper,
"L'Avanti." In 1914 he started his own socialist newspaper "Il Popolo
d'Italia" ("The people of Italy"). He was a staunch proponent of revolutionary
rather than reformist socialism, and actually received Lenin's endorsement
and support for expelling reformists from the Socialist Party. He was
in fact first dubbed "Il Duce" (the Leader) when he was a member of Italy's
(Marxist) Socialist Party.
Eventually, Mussolini used a supplemental term for his tired old socialist
dogma. When Mussolini began to use forms of the term "fascis" in his politics,
the idea of "Roman" propaganda was far from his mind. The term "fascio"
was used with the meaning of “union” or "league" as his political movement
was meant to be a "union" of political leaders joining together for political
goals. It is similar to the word "fasten" in meaning binding or joining
together. By coincidence it paralleled Hitler's supplementation of the "German
Workers' Party" with the words "National" and "Socialist" for the National
Socialist German Workers' Party, and Hitler's alteration of the swastika/hakenkreuz
to symbolized joined "S" letters for "socialists" joining together in the
new party. The new label for the old dogma worked and from 1922 to 1945
(23 years) Mussolini ruled Italy. The earliest listing under "Fascism" in
the Oxford English Dictionary is a 1921 reference to the publication
(July 148): The Fascismo was born in the provinces, where the extremistic
menace was stronger.
In late 1937, Mussolini visited Germany and pledged himself to support
the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. In 1938, he introduced
his ‘reform of customs.’ Hand-shaking was suddenly banned as unhygienic:
a salute was to be used instead - the right forearm raised vertically. He
imposed a new march on the Italian Army which was simply the goose-step of
the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. According to the book
"A Concise History of Italy" by Christopher Duggan, these reforms were
introduced mainly to underline ideological kinship with the National Socialist
German Workers’ Party and to impress it’s leader. The so-called "Roman salute"
(saluto romano) is as much of a fiction as is the so-called "Roman step" (passo
romano) as is the idea that the National Socialist German Workers’ Party
emulated Mussolini and not vice versa.
1. Dr. Rex Curry showed that the USA's early Pledge of Allegiance (to
the flag) used a straight-arm salute and it was the origin of the salute of
the monstrous National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis). Dr. Curry
helped to establish that it was not an ancient Roman salute, and that the
"ancient Roman salute" is a myth. http://rexcurry.net/pledgesalute.html
The myth is still repeated in modern efforts to cover-up Dr. Curry's discoveries
about the Pledge's poisonous pedigree.
2. The original Pledge began with a military salute that then stretched
out toward the flag. Historic photographs are at http://rexcurry.net/pledge2.html
and at http://rexcurry.net/pledge_military.html
In actual use, the second part of the gesture was performed with a straight
arm and palm down by children extending the military salute while perfunctorily
performing the forced ritual chanting. Professor Curry showed that,
due to the way that both gestures were used sequentially in the pledge, the
military salute led to the Nazi salute. The Nazi salute is an extended military
salute via the pledge. http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-pledge.html
3. Francis Bellamy (author of the "Pledge of Allegiance") and Edward
Bellamy (author of the novel "Looking Backward") and Charles Bellamy (author
of "A Moment of Madness") and Frederick Bellamy (who introduced Edward to
socialistic "Fourierism") were socialists. Edward, Charles and Frederick
were brothers, and Francis was their cousin. Francis and Edward were both
self-proclaimed National Socialists and they supported the "Nationalism"
movement in the USA, the "Nationalist" magazine, and the "Nationalist Educational
Association." They wanted all of society to ape the military and they touted
"military socialism" and the "industrial army." Edward’s book was an
international bestseller, translated into every major language (including
German) and he inspired the "Nationalist Party" (in the USA) and their dogma
influenced socialists worldwide (including Germany) via “Nationalist Clubs.”
The Pledge was the origin of the Nazi salute. "Nazi" means "National Socialist
German Workers' Party." A mnemonic device is the swastika. Although the
swastika was an ancient symbol, Professor Curry discovered that it was also
used sometimes by German National Socialists to represent "S" letters for
their "socialism." Curry changed the way that people view the symbol
of the horrid National Socialist German Workers' Party. Hitler altered his
own signature to use the same stylized "S" letter for "socialist" and similar
alphabetic symbolism still shows on Volkswagens. http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-swastika.html
Many Bellamy policies were followed in the USA and still are followed
in the USA and they helped to cause the USA’s big, expensive and oppressive
The government in the USA and the government schools hide those facts
from people in the USA and from people in other countries.
Although Mussolini was much influenced by D'Annunzio, the D'Annunzio never
held an important post in Mussolini's government. D'Annunzio died of a stroke
at his desk on March 1, 1938. He was given a state funeral by Mussolini. D´Annunzio´s
collected works were published in the 1950s. His correspondence with Mussolini
appeared in 1971.
As a poet D'Annuncio (1863-1938) made his debut at the age of sixteen
with PRIMO VERE (1879). The poems were inspired by Giosuè Carducci's
Odi barbare [The Barbarian Odes] (1877) In 1897 D'Annunzio was
elected to parliament for a three-year term. Accumulating debts forced D´Annunzio
to flee to France in 1910.
When World War I broke out, D'Annunzio returned to Italy and started
successful career as a military leader. He made speeches, wrote articles
exhorting his countrymen to assist the Allied cause, and joined the air force,
becoming one of Italy's most celebrated heroes.
(The Barbarian Odes contains the phrase "in sight of the three colors.
Rezia, salute! of free fathers daughter and to new glories freer! It
is beautiful to the beautiful sun]
and the Saluto D’Autunno [Autumn salute]
and SALUTO ITALICO
COURMAYEUR Conca in vivo smeraldo tra foschi passaggi dischiusa,
o pia Courmayeur, ti saluto.
Te da la gran Giurassa da l'ardüa Grivola bella
il sole piú amabile arride.
Pe' verdi colli, da' cieli splendidi,
e ne' fiorenti campi de l'anima,
Delia, a voi tutto è una festa
4 di primavera: lungi le tombe!
(a better English translation Odi barbare was done by William
Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology is a book
that hasn't even been published and it has already been debunked. The
book is an incomplete rehash of work published years ago by Dr. Rex Curry
(author of "Pledge of Allegiance Secrets"). http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-pledge.html
The publisher of Winkler's book is Ohio State University Press (publication
expected in 2009). OSU Press would do better to publish the work of Dr.
"Pledge of Allegiance Secrets" by Dr. Curry exposed the the modern
origin of the so-called "Roman salute" from the USA's Pledge of Allegiance
and from the military salute that was used as the first gesture of two
gestures in the pledge. Francis Bellamy (author of the pledge) was not
attempting to do a "Roman salute" nor a "stiff-arm salute" and he never
said such a thing. Bellamy did say that he was attempting to do a military
salute that was then stretched out toward the flag. In practice, that
became the stiff-arm salute because bored children simply extended Bellamy's
initial military salute outward to point at the flag.
The raised-arm salute was used in America well before the creation
of the National Socialist German Workers Party, and before Mussolini
began his political career as a socialist journalist. http://rexcurry.net/fascism=socialism.html
One reason that Winkler failed to make the discoveries that were
made long ago by Dr. Curry is because Winkler writes in a manner that
is unscholarly, unprofessional, misleading and propagandistic. Winkler
writes as if he is unaware of the actual full name of the group that
called itself the "National Socialist German Workers Party." Winkler
writes as if he is unaware that the group did not use the hackneyed shorthand
terms that Winkler seems to exclusively substitute for the actual name
of the horrid group. Has Winkler ever written the actual name of the
group about which he writes? http://rexcurry.net/pledgehoratii.html
Winkler's misleading method with hackneyed shorthand terms was evident
years ago in his abstract for the American Philological Association (APA).
That piece also indicated that Winkler was unaware that the early
Pledge of Allegiace used a stiff-arm salute. http://rexcurry.net/roman-salute-martin-winkler.html
During that time, Dr. Curry's work became known to Winkler and worldwide
showing the origin of the stiff-arm salute from the pledge in the United
States. Dr. Curry pointed out the misleading terms in Winkler's APA piece
and Winkler's apparent ignorance of the Pledge's early stiff-arm salute,
and the fact that the Pledge of Allegiance was the origin of the mis-named
"Roman salute" from the Pledge's initial military salute. http://rexcurry.net/roman-salute-martin-winkler.html
Winkler's method with misleading slang terms continued years later
in "Gladiator: Film and History." That book also
had revealing omissions by Winkler: No mention of his own earlier faulty
work regarding the "Roman Salute."
Winkler's method with misleading shorthand terms continued
in a poster for Winkler's speech that stated "The Roman Salute: Origin
and Spread of a Fascist Symbol." The poster and Winkler's use of
the word "fascist" in the speech perpetuate ignorance (or cover up?) the
fact that the straight-arm salute adopted by the National Socialist German
Workers Party originated from a National Socialist in the USA (Francis Bellamy)
in 1892. Winkler seems ignorant of (or covering up) the fact that German
National Socialists did not interchange "fascist" for the actual name of
their party. Winkler's bad writing habit perpetuates widespread ignorance
in that regard. See the poster at http://rexcurry.net/socialist-salute3.jpg
and the more accurate version at http://rexcurry.net/socialist-salute.jpg
It is embarrassing that the poster for Winkler's speech shows the
painting "Oath of the Horatii." It is a funny error: As proof of
an "ancient Roman salute" the neo-classical painting (from 1784) was, for
a time, cited on Wikipedia, the glorified anonymous bulletin board where neo-nazis
deliberately post propagandistic lies and delete information about the topics
discussed here. There is where that wackiness began. Believe it or don't,
Wikipedia continues to use "Oath of the Horatii" to imply proof of an "ancient
Roman salute" (It depends upon when Wikipedia is viewed because Wikipedia
changes by the milisecond as people literally do cyber-warfare to maintain
After Dr. Curry pointed out the silliness at Wackipedia, someone there
back-pedaled into speculation that the Pledge's early stiff-arm salute was
based on the Horatii painting, not caring that Francis Bellamy himself explained
the origin of his salute and it had nothing to do with "Oath of the Horatii"
by the painter Jacques-Louis David. The back-pedaling went farther with
misinterpretation of adlocutio, not caring that Bellamy explained the origin
of his salute and it had nothing to do with misinterpretation of adlocutio.
Bellamy explained that his salute started with a military salute that extended
out toward the flag. Francis Bellamy never used the term "ancient Roman
salute" ever for any reason (the concept "ancient Roman salute" did not
exist during Bellamy's time). Indeed, Jacques-Louis David himself never
referred to "Oath of the Horatii" as an "ancient Roman salute" nor did David
use the term "ancient Roman salute" ever for any reason (the concept "ancient
Roman salute" did not exist during David's time). The "Oath of the Horatii"
shows three people reaching for weapons. http://rexcurry.net/pledgehoratii.html
Winkler's misleading method continues in his book "Roman Salute: Cinema,
History, Ideology," including Winkler's misleading hackneyed slang, on
display in the Table of Contents. One example is the title for chapter
3 ("Raised-arm salutes in the United States before fascism: from the Pledge
of allegiance to Ben-Hur on screen") that seems designed to deceive. Winkler
and Wikpedia play word games with the hackneyed term "fascism" in order
to cover-up the National Socialist German Workers Party and its connection
to older American National Socialism and the pledge from the Bellamys. If
the raised arm salutes in the United States existed before "fascism," as
Winkler claims, then they existed during the enormous growth and popularity
of National Socialism touted by the Bellamys, and they influenced the dogma,
symbols and rituals of the National Socialist German Workers Party later
(Winkler's "fascism"). Winkler wants to pretend that America's National
Socialism was not "fascism" so that Winkler can evade the connections.
People who refused to perform the stiff-arm salute and robotic chanting
to the nation's flag were persecuted, prosecutied, expelled, beaten and even
lynched. Eventually, that was happening at the same time in the United States
and in Germany. But it started in the United States in 1892 with the
Bellamys. They wanted government to take over education under their National
Socialism, and eliminate all of the better alternatives, and when the government
granted their wish the government's schools imposed segregation by law and
taught racism as official policy. See the photograph of a segregated class
forced to perform the mechanical chanting and America's straight-arm salute
Winkler's table of contents for another chapter builds upon the widespread
ignorance by using the term "Nazi" instead of the actual name of the German
The above is also why Winkler failed to make another discovery
that was made years ago by Dr. Curry: the symbol used by the German national
socialists, although an ancient symbol, was altered for use by socialists
as overlapping S-letters for their "socialism" (It was turned 45 degrees
to the horizontal and always oriented in the S-letter direction). http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-swastika.html
Winkler writes as if he is unaware that Francis Bellamy and Edward
Bellamy were cohorts in preaching about "Christian socialism," "military
socialism," and "national socialism." The Pledge and the early stiff-arm
salute were part of their efforts toward those goals.
The above is also why Winkler failed to make another discovery
that was made years ago by Dr. Curry: Francis Bellamy (who grew up in
Rome, N.Y., authored the "Pledge of Allegiance," and was the origin of the
stiff-arm salute used in the early Pledge) and Edward Bellamy (Francis'
cousin and the author of "Looking Backward") were notorious national socialsts
in America who advocated "military socialism" and an "industrial army" and
they influenced the National Socialist German Workers Party and its dogma,
symbols and rituals. The Bellamys advocated a government takeover of education,
and when the government granted their wish, government schools imposed segregation
by law and taught racism as official policy. People who refused to perform
the stiff-arm salute and robotic chanting to the nations flag were persecuted.
That happened in the U.S. before it happened in Germany (and elsewhere)
and it even outlasted German National Socialism. http://rexcurry.net/book1a1contents-pledge.html
The above is also why Winkler failed to make another discovery
that was made years ago by Dr. Curry: the stiff-arm salute developed from
the Pledge because the Bellamy dogma of "military socialism" caused Francis
Bellamy to begin the Pledge with a military salute that was then extended
out toward the flag, as a gesture to the flag. In practice, annoyed students,
forced into robotic ritualism, simply extended the military salute outward
with the palm remaining down. Thus, the straight-arm salute developed as
an extended military salute from the Pledge of Allegiance. http://rexcurry.net/i-pledge-allegiance-to-the-flag.jpg
Winkler's book "Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology" overlooks
and misleads regarding the "history and ideology" part in the title.
Winkler missed the one actual analogy between "ancient Rome" and the origin
of the stiff-arm salute in the Pedge of Allegiance: authoritarianism (then
and now), militarism, oppressive taxation and the decline of a once-great
Winkler overlooked the "big picture" that Dr. Curry uncovered years
ago: How the pledge, the salute and the socialist dogma behind it caused
the current massive spending and debt in America, domestic military socialism,
nazi-style numbering of babies with lifetime tracking (the "social security"
ponzi scam) and the police state in the United States that continues
to grow today, along with government schools that have mechanical chanting
every day for twelve years of each child's life (only the misnamed "Roman
salute" has changed).
Winkler overlooked another big picture that Dr. Curry uncovered
years ago: How the pledge, the salute and the socialist dogma behind it
influenced totalitarianism worldwide, including the National Socialist
German Workers Party and its dogma, symbols and rituals. http://rexcurry.net/roman-salute-metropolitan-museum-of-art.html
The myth grew from the pledge and the resulting popular culture
of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that was misunderstood
to deal with ancient Rome: historical plays and films. Three decades of
the Pledge of Allegiance (from 1892) was chiefly responsible for the wide
familiarity of Europeans and Americans with forms of the raised-arm salute
and made it readily available for political purposes. From America's pledge,
the gesture entered the visual culture of stage and screen from after
1892 to the 1920s and beyond.
The continuing growth of socialism (and of the Pledge) makes
an examination of all its facets desirable, especially when the true
origins of a symbol as potent as the salute and the history of its dissemination
are barely known to classicists and historians of ancient Rome on the
one hand, and to scholars of modern European history, on the other.
Thus Dr. Curry's work appeals to classicists and historians, including
film historians, and will be of interest to readers beyond the academy.
As the nation's leading authority on the
pledge of allegiance and on the "Roman Salute," Dr. Rex Curry
made the historic discovery that the salute of the National Socialist
German Workers' Party (Nazis) originated from the military salute
in the USA, and from the original flag pledge (as written by a socialist),
and not from ancient Rome. http://rexcurry.net/pledgesalute.html
The debate was prompted by many factors, including a poster
for Professor Winkler's speech that stated "The Roman Salute:
Origin and Spread of a Fascist Symbol." The poster and the speech's
use of the word "fascist" perpetuate ignorance of the fact that
the straight-arm salute was popularized by a socialist in the USA,
Francis Bellamy. See http://rexcurry.net/socialist-salute3.jpg
and the more accurate version at http://rexcurry.net/socialist-salute.jpg
The poster announces a speech that might
also have perpetuated widespread ignorance of the fact that
the word "Nazi" means "National Socialist German Workers' Party."
The debate was also prompted by Professor
Winkler's book "Gladiator" which also perpetuates similar ignorance
and myths. Winkler's book index lists only the hackneyed
terms "Nazi, Nazism....see also Fascism" again perpetuating ignorance
about the socialist origins of the salute, and about the National
Socialist German Workers' Party. The book appears to never use the
actual name of the horrid party but seems to deliberately repeat
the hackneyed shorthand.
The book's tired stereotypes perpetuate the
myth that the National Socialist German Workers' Party slaughtered
the most people. Here is one sample quote "The Fascist
and Nazi movements exploited this fear of the uncontrolled masses
to impose their own leaders." The book does not explain the relationship
of the National Socialist German Workers Party to other socialist movements.
The book never indicts the other socialist movements and their leaders
in the socialist inquisitions of the Wholecaust (of which the Holocaust
was a part): ~60 million killed by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics;
~50 million by the Peoples' Republic of China; and ~20 million by
the National Socialist German Workers' Party.
Another glaring puzzle in "Gladiator" is
that Winkler never mentions his own "Roman Salute" work. That
might be because, before the book was published, RexCurry.net
had already begun commenting on Professor Winkler's failure to
address the straight-arm salute's origin from a socialist in the
USA who wrote the pledge of allegiance to the flag. Those facts
don't fit in with the book's hackneyed perpetuation of ignorance
about the National Socialist German Workers' Party.
In Professor Winklers' early work on the
"Roman" salute myth, the professor traced the myth to early
fictional representations in movies, but Winkler appeared to
be unaware that the original pledge of allegiance predated all
of the movies and used a straight-armed salute (from 1892).
Even when Mussolini adopted the gesture, he was a well-known socialist
journalist in Italy.
The true origins of this salute can be traced back to the Pledge of Allegiance
in the United States. The Pledge was written in 1892 by Francis Bellamy
(a self-proclaimed National Socialist who promoted "military socialism"
and an "industrial army"). Francis was cousin to Edward Bellamy, another
American national socialist and the author of the book "Looking Backward."
Dr. Curry showed how the Pledge originally began with a military
salute that was then extended out toward the flag. In practice the second
part of the early American pledge gesture was performed palm down. Thus,
the mis-named "Roman salute" developed from an extended military salute
in the USA's Pledge of Allegiance. http://rexcurry.net/i-pledge-allegiance-to-the-flag.jpg
MEXICAN FLAG SALUTE TO FLAG OF MEXICO ONE ARM SALUTE
The Pledge of Allegiance in the USA originally began with a classic
military salute (to the forehead) that was then extended out toward the
flag. The initial military salute was sometimes performed from the chest.
In practice, the 2nd gesture was performed palm down because children
simply extended the military gesture outward.
The Pledge was written by a National Socialist who wanted military
socialism in the USA, Mexico, Germany and worldwide.