|The Pledge of Allegiance (& the military salute) was
the origin of Adolf Hitler's "Nazi" salute under the National Socialist
German Workers Party (Nazis). http://rexcurry.net/pledgesalute.html
Francis Bellamy & Edward Bellamy touted National Socialism and the police state in the USA decades before their dogma was exported to Germany. They influenced the NSDAP, its dogma, symbols and rituals. http://rexcurry.net/police-state.html
| The swastika, although an ancient symbol,
was also used to represent crossed "S" letters for "socialism" under
the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis), similar to the
alphabetical symbolism for the SS Division, the SA, the NSV, and the
VW logo (the letters "V" and "W" joined for "Volkswagen"). http://rexcurry.net/bookchapter4a1a2a1.html
See how dogma influenced modern
art and graphic art under the National Socialist German Workers Party.
Politics, propaganda and graphic art collide in the government's obsession with your life in the USA http://rexcurry.net/pledge2.html
Learn how "patriotism" and propaganda
combine in Flags, Tattoos & fanatacism. http://rexcurry.net/tattoos.html
The USA's growing militaristic Police State
MORE ON ART AND PHOTOGRAPHY at http://rexcurry.net/photography.html
and http://rexcurry.net/schools.html and http://rexcurry.net/pledge2.html and http://rexcurry.net/artwork.html
and http://rexcurry.net/ecoart.html and http://rexcurry.net/ecotags.html and http://rexcurry.net/trees.html
and http://rexcurry.net/ecoturtles.html and http://rexcurry.net/ssnall.html and http://rexcurry.net/ssnburn.html
and http://rexcurry.net/tattoos.html and http://rexcurry.net/ssnstamp.jpg and http://rexcurry.net/ssntp3.jpg
and http://rexcurry.net/ssntie.jpg and http://rexcurry.net/tags.html and http://rexcurry.net/gunsbumpers.html
Pledge of Allegiance in
images & articles at
For fascinating information about symbolism see
Hear audio on worldwide radio at
You should enjoy the following esoteric points that are known to almost no one. They are virtually unknown due to misrepresentations spread by wikipedia/wakipedia, the anonymous bulletin board masquerading as an encyclopedia (It is odd that people cite wikipedia, in that for it to be
cited "intelligently"(?) one would have to include the date and exact time cited in that wakipedia changes by the milisecond, and is often changed
deliberately to contradict the very reason someone cited it. By citing the date and exact time it might be possible for a reader to view the history of
changes and find the actual article cited as it existed at that point in time).
The top esoteric point to be made here is a rebuttal of the bonehead who posted on wakipedia that the Jacques-Louis David painting "Oath of the Horatii" is
the origin of the stiff-armed salute. Lots of people repeat that mindlessly because they see it on wakipedia.
The bonehead who originally posted the horatii lie did it in an effort to cover-up discoveries by the noted symbologist Dr. Rex Curry concerning the pledge of allegiance as the origin of the stiff-armed salute. It is interesting to note that the wakipedia comment about the horatii claim never explains that the pledge use of the gesture did not come from the horatii painting, rather the pledge’s use came from the military salute extended out toward the flag. That and other points are examples of the deliberateness of misrepresentation in the wakipedia posts, intended to mislead people into believing that Francis Bellamy (author of the Pledge of Allegiance) was inspired by the David painting, when there is no evidence at all of that, just the opposite.
Wikipedia liars also never mention that government schools required the salute and Bellamy's chanting by law daily for three decades (and
persecuted anyone who refused) before German National Socialists did the same, because they want everyone to believe it was simply the Horatii
painting that inspired German socialsists, and there was no impact from the USA's government schools that required the salute and Bellamy's chanting by law
daily for three decades (and persecuted anyone who refused). To the liars, the Bellamy/pledge activity was of no import and is meaningless, whereas the
horatii painting explains everything, even though no one (e.g. Hitler, Bellamy, David) mentions it at all in regard to any "roman salute gesture."
Even Jaques-Louis David never used the term "Roman salute" as the concept of a "Roman salute" did not even exist during David's life (check the etymology of the
term "Roman salute" -a check that is glaringly never referenced by wakipedia nor by anyone who repeats the Horatii myth -the myth that the "Roman salute" concept came from the painting "Oath of the Horatii." There is more in a link below).
The Roman myth came from the Pledge of Allegiance.
Francis Bellamy never used the term "Roman salute" as the term did not exist at the time he wrote the pledge, and he did not reference David, and he specifically explained how the salute developed: the pledge began with a military salute that was then extended out toward the flag. Bellamy did not even intend for the palm do be down, but in practice it became palm down due to the disinterest of children forced to perform the robotic daily chanting (they merely extended the military salute out toward the flag, without turning the palm up). It had nothing to do with any "Roman salute" myth, because the myth did not exist at the time that Bellamy wrote the pledge and for some time thereafter. The "Roman salute" myth came from the Pledge of Allegiance, not vice versa. There is more on that topic in one or more of the links below (for example, Francis Bellamy grew up in Rome, N.Y., where, believe it or don't, people referred to themselves as "Romans," and sometimes they do today).
The Horatii myth (that the "Roman salute" came from the painting "Oath of the Horatii") exists because liars on wakipedia used to claim that the salute actually was an ancient Roman salute (and lots of people repeated that myth and still do repeat that myth because of wakipedia and because they haven't been updated on the newer Horatii lie on wakipedia). Dr. Curry pointed out the cupidity of the wakipedians and the falsity of the Roman salute myth to the point that it became so embarrassingly obvious that they could not persist in re-posting the ancient Roman salute myth any longer, and they could not dispute Dr. Curry’s discoveries that the stiff-arm salute came from Francis Bellamy's use of the military salute extended toward the flag. The wikipedia liars deliberately looked for another explanation, in an effort to pre-date Bellamy as the source. The liars on wakipedia saw the Horatii painting, saw people with their arms extended outward in the painting, and they fabricated and substituted the "Horatii myth" for their "ancient Roman salute myth ("substitute" is an accurate word because they did the same thing when they claimed that the stiff-armed salute actually was an ancient Roman salute: they would pick out any artistic representation from ancient Rome that showed any person with his arm in the air, and they would declare that to be the "Roman salute" (they have done the same now with the Horatii painting)).
Anyway, now you know some things that are essentially not known to almost anyone else on the planet.
Here is an article recently sent to another boob who repeated the Horatii myth because of wakipedia (it repeats some of the points above).
This is posted to correct errors in the January 18, 2008 article "Questions Answered: Roman salutes..."
The USA's Pledge of Allegiance was the origin of the salute adopted later by the National Socialist German Workers Party.
Wikipedia (Wakipedia) has spread the lie that the gesture came from the Jacques Louis-David painting Oath of the Horatii. That myth
originated on wakipedia in an effort to cover-up the discoveries of the noted symbologist Dr. Rex Curry. Even David never used the term
"Roman salute" as the concept of a "Roman salute" did not even exist during David's life (check the etymology of the term "Roman salute" -a
check that is glaringly never referenced by wakipedia nor by anyone who repeats the Horatii myth). The Roman myth came from
the Pledge of Allegiance.
Francis Bellamy never used the term "Roman salute" as the term did not exist at the time he wrote the pledge, and he did not reference David,
and he specifically explained how the salute developed: the pledge began with a military salute that was then extended out toward the
flag. Bellamy did not even intend for the palm do be down, but in practice it became palm down due to the disinterest of children forced to
perform the robotic daily chanting (they merely extended the military salute out toward the flag, without turning the palm up).
The Pledge of Allegiance was the origin of the Nazi salute (and the swastika -although an ancient symbol- was used to represent crossed
S-shapes for "socialism" under the National Socialist German Workers Party).
Francis Bellamy (cousin of author Edward Bellamy) was a socialist in the Nationalism movement and authored the Pledge of Allegiance
(1892), the origin of the stiff-armed salute adopted much later by the National Socialist German Workers Party. See the work of the
symbologist Dr. Rex Curry. http://rexcurry.net/pledge2.html
The early pledge began with a military salute that was then extended out toward the flag. In practice, the second gesture was performed
palm-down with a stiff-arm when the military salute was merely pointed out at the flag. Thus, the military salute led to the Nazi salute in
the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag of the United States. http://rexcurry.net/pledge_military.html
It was not an ancient Roman salute. That is a myth debunked by Dr. Curry, who showed that the myth came from the Pledge.
Another explanation for the "Roman salute" myth is here http://rexcurry.net/bookchapter1a1f.html
American national socialists (including Edward Bellamy), in cooperation with Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society,
popularized the use of the Swastika (an ancient symbol) as a modern symbol for socialism long before the symbol was adopted by the National
Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis) and used on its flag.
The Bellamys influenced the National Socialist German Workers Party and its dogma, rituals and symbols (e.g. robotic collective chanting
to flags; and the modern use of the swastika as crossed S-letters for "Socialism" under German National Socialism). Similar alphabetical
symbolism was used under the NSDAP for the "SS" division, the "SA," the "NSV," et cetera and similar symbolism is visible today as the
VW logo (the letters "V" and "W" joined for "Volkswagen").
The Bellamys wanted the government to take over all food, clothing, shelter, goods and services and create an "industrial army" to impose
their "military socialism." See the video documentary at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BssWWZ3XEe4
It is the same dogma that led to the socialist Wholecaust (of which the Holocaust was a part): ~60 million killed under the former Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics; ~50 million under the Peoples' Republic of China; ~20 million under the National Socialist German Workers'
Today, the flag symbolizes authoritarianism in the USA. The historical facts above explain the enormous size and scope of government today,
and the USA's police state, and why it is growing so rapidly. They are reasons for minarchy: massive reductions in government, taxation,
spending and socialism.
The early American stiff-armed salute was not an ancient Roman salute. That is a myth debunked by the noted historian Dr. Rex Curry, who showed that the myth came from the Pledge and from various facts including that Francis Bellamy grew up in Rome, N.Y., not Rome, Italy, and thereafter the Pledge salute was repeated in early films (some showing fictional scenes of ancient Rome). The reasons above and more led to the American stiff-armed salute being picked up later by German socialists and the National Socialist German Workers Party (under the influence of Adolf Hitler and the U.S. citizen and Harvard grad Ernst Hanfstaengl, a confidant of Hitler) and by Italian socialists under Benito Mussolini (who discovered the Pledge of Allegiance salute while he deveolped followers as a socialist journalist writing for socialist newspapers, and later became an ally of the National Socialist German Workers Party). http://rexcurry.net/pledgerome.html
Francis Bellamy never used the term "Roman salute" when describing his pledge's salute and he was not influenced by Jacques-Louis David's painting "Oath of the Horatii." One reason why Francis Bellamy never used the term "Roman salute" in any way is because the concept of the "Roman salute" did not exist when Bellamy wrote his pledge and for decades thereafter. Francis Bellamy clearly explained that his pledge began with a military salute that was then extended out toward the flag. In practice, the second gesture was performed palm-down with a stiff-arm when the military salute was merely pointed out at the flag by disinterested children forced to do Bellamy's robotic chanting daily in government schools. That is how the straight-arm salute developed from Francis Bellamy's Pledge of Allegiance and its use of the military salute (and how the USA's Pledge salute led to the Nazi salute). http://rexcurry.net/pledge_military.html
That the concept of the "Roman salute" did not exist when Bellamy wrote his pledge (and for decades thereafter) also means that the concept of the "Roman salute" did not even exist when Jacques-Louis David lived and painted "Oath of the Horatii" and thus David was NOT thinking of a real or imagined "Roman salute" when he painted the Horatii, nor did David ever use the term "Roman salute." The Horatii lie (that the painting was the origin of the "Roman salute" myth) first appeared on Wikipedia, deliberately fabricated by a liar to cover-up Dr. Curry's discovery that the Pledge was the origin of the Nazi salute. In the painting, 3 brothers are reaching for weapons (and the two figures in back are reaching with their left hands). The same liar who created the Horatii lie had, until he was debunked, previously claimed that the stiff-armed salute was an actual ancient Roman salute, and he posted the lie that Roman statues displaying "adlocutio" (a gesture made by a person speaking) showed the "ancient Roman salutes" that he claimed was adopted by Bellamy. The newly substituted Horatii lie has been mindlessly repeated by many people (as the adlocutio lie was repeated and still is) because wakipedia glorifies itself as an encyclopedia, even though it is merely an anonymous bulletin board where anyone can post anything. http://rexcurry.net/roman-salute-oxford-english-dictionary.html
|The Roman salute myth might have
sprung from the fact that Francis Bellamy (the author of the pledge
of allegiance and of its original straight-arm salute) was from the
city of Rome (in the state of New York, not in Italy) and people and
things from the city in New York state were referred to as "Roman" and
still are today. Francis Bellamy (1855-1932) was born in Mount
Morris, New York, where his father, David Bellamy, was working as a
pastor for the Baptist Church. In 1859, David accepted a call at the
First Baptist Church in Rome, New York. He remained there until he died
in 1864. Francis began schooling and graduated from Rome Free Academy
(RFA -the government high school that is still there) in 1872, later
becoming RFA's first president of its Alumni Association. The RFA started
as a non-government school in 1847 when a meeting of citizens established
Rome Academy. The Board of Trustees accepted a land site gift from the
estate of Dominick Lynch. In 1848 the RFA opened with a principal and six
teachers. It was a non-government school for 20 years until, in 1869, a
government school district with a Board of Education was created and Rome
Academy became "Rome Free Academy." In 1873, after RFA, Bellamy entered the
University of Rochester where he studied for the Baptist ministry.
In 1898 the New York state legislature was the first in the nation to pass a statute forcing children in government schools to robotically chant the socialist's pledge. In 1905, as many as 19 States had passed school flag laws. To this very day New York still has a law forcing teachers to lead a recitation of the socialist pledge in socialist schools (government schools).
Pierre Corneille's Horace presents diverse dialogues
both effectively and persuasively. Numerous speeches in Horace
are intended to provoke political and philosophical discussion,
while maintaining a fairly straightforward meaning--there are clear
motivations by the author in his writing. This style and intention is
typical of not only plays during the same period, but also in multiple
volumes of theatrical works. Painters of seventeenth and eighteenth century
France, however, usually followed a different approach when deciding the
subject and layout of their works. Jacques-Louis David, when deciding to
paint a scene related to Horace, did not intend to create a clear-cut meaning
as pronounced in the play. David eventually chose a scene not represented
by Corneille because he wanted to construct a discourse-inducing environment
by painting The Oath of the Horatii that theatrics could not foster.
David was not trying to display a set, universal interpretation with this painting. After all, he had already rejected two early sketches that focused on scenes present in Horace. Both these two portrayals would have presented a generous interpretation of established dialogue present in the play; each probably would not have had a desirable reaction considering French culture and expectations of the time. David presented his first sketch to a group of respected individuals including Charles de Wailly; they did not enjoy the work because the full meaning depended on words the spectator could never hear (Crow 34). In other words, by viewing a depiction of a scene from Horace, David realized the audience would attempt to establish ideas based not upon the action in the painting, but by the correlating events in Horace. This is one of the chief reasons David chose not to paint a scene from Horace; there was an overwhelming desire to allow room for analysis and eventual self-understanding--he wanted the audience to determine meaning.
Corneille Sedaine was also present at the presentation of David's initial sketch; he suggested David choose The Oath of the Horatii, a scene not present in Corneille's play (38). He mentioned specifically that David should avoid the climax, Camilla's death, due to various violent overtones. Although not the main factor influencing David, Sedaine was the first to suggest painting the oath and held certain significance in David's ultimate decision. By painting this scene, Sedaine argued, David could add dramatic appeal and not necessarily have as piercing a reaction that a vicious or climatic scene may create (41). Therefore, Corneille Sedaine acted as a catalyst to David's eventual embracement of the oath. The scene also allowed David the ability to limit a potentially highly divisive reaction by viewers. The final version of The Oath of the Horatii portrays three brothers ready to risk their lives for the honor of Rome (41). Although the moment never occurs in the written play it can be inferred as a real occurrence. This depiction was in sharp contrast to his second sketch which showed a definitive central character. He chose three brothers because he did not want to have a central focus on one hero, which would have not been appreciated by the audience. The conflict really arises between Roman culture where the Horace took place and French culture--the viewers of the work. Roman culture featured an established sense of near blind-faith to the nation; the Romans have often been criticized for their appeal to heroics and their fundamental lack of understanding of feeling (35). French culture had a near opposite ideology on both the concept of state and patriotism to that state. The French populace's idea of the state had a clear community feeling and was not nearly as hierarchal as Roman thought. Basically, French political culture embraced a completely different form of the idea of patriotism (35). David did not want to create a clash whenever presenting his work. The written play did not necessarily have this same immediate clash, mainly because of the differing medium and Pierre Corneille's style. Still, the painting allows a large degree of internal contrast and sharpness; while the male figures appear embraced by the task at hand, the females are torn emotionally. Even this small interpretation could be contested--and that is David's intent. Further personal interpretation would illustrate the intellectual discourse desired by David; he seemed to yield power to the spectators.
Visual art, then, seems to be less convincing overall and somewhat involuntary. In theatrics, by contrast, the playwright, director, and actor can all, to some degree, influence the audience's interpretation of actions; each dramatist maintains a certain quantity of political persuasiveness. In fact, some eighteenth century French individuals, felt certain plays were nearly as effective as classical tragedies, they thought these plays could harness the audience's emotional response and shape both civic virtues and, to a certain extent, political culture (37). And they could--Horace certainly falls into this category. The Journal des Dames, which was "published and edited in the late 1770s by Louis-Sabastien Mercier," was one of the leading advocates of this ideology (36). In some cases, this implies that a limited number of persons can control and reshape the interpretation of action. In visual arts, especially David's works, there is not necessarily a clear representation of one avenue of desired interpretation. Additionally, the artistic environment in Revolutionary France featured numerous painters who were not individually ascribing to the work--the overall idea and justification the embraced was far superior to the technique (37). Unlike the clearer meanings in plays, David wanted to provoke thought on basic political ideologies, and make sure not to portray a scene that would limit the wide array of interpretation.
David carefully chose The Oath of the Horatii in order to foster political and philosophical conversation and ongoing debate about the interpretation. David was able to craft an intellectual work by choosing a scene and medium not represented in Pierre Corneille's Horace. "To the world, this was going to be David's break-through work" and to the world, it was (31). The Oath of the Horatii had certain political repercussions in French society that heighten its importance and appeal, making it an immediate and unquestionable classic, precisely because of David's intention to provoke political discourse.
Crow, Thomas. "Fatherland," in Emulation; Making Artists for Revolutionary France. Yale University Press, 1995: 31-45.